Approaches

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Approaches
    • Biological approach
      • Behaviour is controlled by the nervous system.
      • Nervous system is divided into central and peripheral nervous systems.
        • Central nervous system divided into brain and spinal cord.
        • Peripheral nervous system divided into autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
          • Autonomic divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
            • Sympathetic- fight or flight response.
      • Behaviours also controlled by neurotransmitters; e.g: adrenaline; thyroxin; and serotonin.
      • Functional level of analysis
        • Evolutionary and genetic basis of behaviour.
          • Natural selection. Depends on 3 principals (Dowling, 1994):
            • Principal of diversity- large variation of same species.
            • Principal of interaction- species interact with fitting environment.
            • Principal of differential amplification- variant will spread (reproduce).
      • Sexual selection-
        • Males have unlimited sperm so find many female mates and indiscriminate.
        • Females have limited eggs so care for offspring to ensure survival.
      • Genes-
        • mutation cause variation which if successful, will be passed onto the next generation.
        • Chromosomes contain 4 bases (A with T and C with G).
      • Evaluation
        • Strengths
          • Scientific
          • Good evidence to support.
          • Objective measurement.
          • Makes sense as we are embodied.
          • Findings can be used to help people.
        • Limitations
          • Deterministic.
          • Reductionist.
          • Ignores nature.
          • Methodological problems with measuring physiology.
          • Criticisms of evolutionary theory- not good at predicting what will happen.
    • Behaviourist
      • Behaviour is learnt through conditioning.
      • Classical conditioning
        • Pavlov's dog
        • Noticed salivation even when not presented with food.
        • Conditioned dog to salivate when bell was rung.
        • Unconditioned stimulus (Food)-> unconditioned response (salivation).
        • Unconditioned stimulus (food) -> conditioned stimulus (bell) -> unconditioned response (salivation).
        • Conditioned stimulus (bell) -> conditioned response (salivation).
      • Operant conditioning
        • B.F Skinner + his rat box.
        • Thorndike's Law of Effect: satisfying consequence = behaviour repeated.
        • Positive reinforcement- reward for desired behaviour.
          • Token economy.
        • Negative reinforcement- removal of negative stimulus upon desired behaviour.
        • Punishment: introduction of negative stimulus upon undesired behaviour.
      • Evaluation:
        • Strengths:
          • Driving force in development of psychology as a science.
          • Use of experimental method.
          • Evidence from animal studies.
          • Benefits of behaviour therapy.
          • Behaviour modification effective with problem behaviour.
        • Limitations:
          • Deterministic.
          • Reductionist.
          • Assumption that animal behaviour and learning are the same as human.
          • Contradictory evidence to principals of conditioning.
          • Problems with behaviour therapy and behaviour modification.
    • Social Learning Theory
      • Emphasised observational learning (observing and imitating).
      • Emphasised expectancy (behaviour only copied if there is expectancy of reinforcement.
      • Cognitive processes involoved:
        • Attention- concentrating on model + behaviour.
        • Retention- remembering.
        • Reproduction.
        • Motivation- reinforcement of punishment.
      • Reproduction depends on:
        • Appropriateness
        • Relevance
        • Smilarity of model.
        • Warmth and friendliness
        • Model having power.
        • Consistancy of models behaviour.
      • The Bobo doll
        • Bandura
          • 36 boy and 36 girls age 52 months. One control of 24 children.
          • Aggressive towards doll- hitting sitting on, throwing and heckling.
            • Conditions- F model, F ppts; M model, M ppts; F model M ppts; M model, F ppts.
          • Non-aggressive: model played alone with toys, ignoring doll and children.
          • Control: child left alone in playroom.
          • 20 min observation, divided into 5 sec units, scored on direct imitation, physical and verbal aggression and non- aggression .
          • Results
            • More aggressive on aggressive conditions.
            • Non-aggression lower aggression than control.
            • Boys had higher physical aggression scores.
            • Higher aggression for aggressive models.
          • Evaluation:
            • Lab so low ecological validity.
          • Film experiment:
            • Adult aggressive and was rewarded.
              • Aggressive towards doll (+ control).
            • Adult aggressive then punished.
              • Didn't copy.
            • Adult aggressive (control).
            • Children asked to copy and all did (* showed difference of behaviour and performance).
      • Evaluation:
        • Strengths:
          • Adds cognitive processes to behaviourist principals.
          • Based on lab experiments.
          • Less deterministic and reductionist.
          • Explains specific imitated behaviour.
          • Explains development of culture and complex behaviours.
        • Limitations:
          • Does not explains how cognitive processes work.
            • Concentrated on external behaviours.
          • Lab settings.
    • Cognitive:
      • Focusses on workings of the mind, not physiology of the brain.
      • How information is stored in the brain e.g., in categories.
      • Knowledge is stored in schemas.
        • When an event happens, we draw info from relevant schema.
      • Mischel (1973):
        • Variables influencing response to a stimulus.
          • Competencies
          • Encoding- catagories
          • Expectancies
          • Values
            • These variables influence attribution process and behaviour.
          • Plans
      • Cognitive development concerned with how individuals learn categories, concepts and schemas.
      • Evaluation:
        • Strengths:
          • Adds cognitive processes to behaviourist ideas.
          • Less deterministic.
          • Middle in nature-nurture debate.
          • Rigorous experimental methods.
          • Ideas applied in cognitive-behavioural therapy.
        • Limitations:
          • Not possible to see cognitive processes in work.
          • Not good as explaining why cognitive processes happen as they do.
          • Reductionist.
          • Too much emphasis on brain as computer.
          • Limitations of using experimental methods.
    • Psychodynamic
      • Basic assumptions
        • Behaviour and personality are determined by unconscious motives.
        • Understanding of ourselves are obscured by defence mechanisms.
        • Experiences at early age set unconscious mind.
        • Best ways to study behaviour is through case study.
      • Structure of personality:
        • Id- concerned with instant gratification and instinct.
        • Superego- moral part, includes conscience. At conflict with id.
        • Ego uses defence mechanisms to protect conscious mind from discovering id.
      • Psychosexul stages of development
        • Oral- 1 year- fixation around the mouth.
        • Anal stage-- 3 years- fixation with bowels e.g., toilet training ( can cause conflict).
        • Phallic stage- 3-5 years- Oedipus and electra complexes.
        • Latency stage- 6- pubery.
        • Genital stage- puberty to aduklthood.
      • Post Freudians-
        • Focusses more ego, development through lifespan and culture society.
        • Focusses less on id, psychosexual stages and instincts.
        • Erik Erikson-
          • Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development:
            • 9th stage: created by wife. Experiencing growing frail and loss of ability leading to gero-transcendence.
            • Similarities to Freud:
              • E accepted three parts of personality.
              • E agreed stages of development are genetically determined.
              • Both said that there is a conflict to be resolved at each stage.
            • Differences to Freud:
              • E placed more emphasis on Freud.
              • E spanned development over life span.
              • E had coflicts relating to family in early stages but school and peers in later stages ( F just family).
              • E used wide range of research methods (e.g., psychobiography of famous historical figures).
      • Evaluation:
        • Strengths:
          • Detailed theory of human condition.
          • stens to individuals talking about experiences.
          • use of case study method.
          • Thingds are not always as they seem in behaviour.
          • Middle position in many debates in sychology.
        • Limitations:
          • Hypothetical constructs that are not testable.
          • Limitations of case study method.
          • Deterministic.
          • Too much emphasis on conscious.
          • Freud's limited sample of patients.
    • Structure of mind:
      • Unconscious, conscious and preconscious.
    • Humanistic:
      • Emphasis on conscious awareness and ability to chose our behaviour.
      • Supports free will.
      • Ability to chose leads to personal growth.
      • We have autonomy.
      • We have situated freedome- we are cionstrained in some way.
      • Holism- reductionism: concentrates on whole person rather than individual neurones or behaviours.
      • Abraham Maslow:
        • Peak experiences - occasional experiences characterised by a sense of delight, wholeness, meaningfulness and abundant energy.
        • Hierarchy of needs:
      • Carl Rogers:
        • The 'Fundamental predominance of the subjective'.
          • Individuals live in their own subjective world.
        • Importance of personal growth:
        • Self- is composed of subjective experience and evaluation of others.
      • Evaluation:
        • Strengths:
          • Emphasises autonomy.
          • Alternative to scientific psychology.
          • Places subjective experience and meaning at centre.
          • Holistic.
          • CCT is supportive.
        • Limitations:
          • Too positive about human nature.
          • Too much emphasis on subjective experience.
          • Not scientific.
          • Ignores anything outside conscious awareness.
          • CCT is limited in whom it can help.
  • Conditions- F model, F ppts; M model, M ppts; F model M ppts; M model, F ppts.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »