- Approaches - The Psycho dynamic
- Role of the unconscious
- We are aware if our mind - the conscious mind' however the mind is mostly made up of the 'unconscious',which is repressed. And its the storehouses of our biological drive.
- Above the 'unconscious; is the 'per-conscious' which includes our thoughts and ideas that we can become aware of through dreams
- unconscious also contains threatening and disturbing memories that have been repressed, or locked away and forgotten
- The structure of personality
- ID - primitive part of the personality which is based on pleasure principles. Has a mass on unconscious and drives and instincts. Also, the ID is present at birth
- Ego - based on the reality principles and is developed around the age of 2. Its role is the reduce the demands of the ID and Superego
- Superego - formed at the end of the phallic stage, around 5 yeas old. It internalized the sense of right and wrong - its based on the morality principles
- Psycho-sexual stages
- Child development undergoes 5 key stages, if unsuccessful could led to a fixation
- Stage 1 - Oral (0-1 years) focus of pleasure is the mouth. mother's breast is the object if desire
- Oral Fixation e.g. smoking, biting nails,
- Stage 2 - Anal (1-3) focus of pleasure is the anus, child gains pleasure from withholding and expelling faeces
- Anal retentive - perfectionist, obsessive
- Stage 3 - Phallic (3-5) focus of pleasure is the genital area - child experiences the Oedipus or Electra complex
- Phallic personality - reckless, narcissistic or possibly homosexual
- Latency - earlier conflicts are repressed
- Genital - sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty
- Difficulty forming heterosexual relationships
- Role of the unconscious
- A strength of the psychoanalytic is that it holds explanatory power, as it has greatly influence psychology and links connections between experience in children, such as relationship with our parents. Therefore, the approach be used tp explain aspects of our behavior
- However, Freud used small scale case studies, and therefore it is not possible to make generation on behaviors on a small sample. Freud also used highly subjective observation which causes his theory is lack external validity as the research cannot be applied to the general population.
- Another limitation of the approach is that its been challenged by Karl Popper who believes Freud's concepts could not be falsification, which means that they cannot be proven or disprove.
- A strength of the approach is that it contains practical applications, it has been used to treat mild mental disorders and used to develop new format of therapy s.g. psychoanalysis. However, the approach would be inappropriate with serious mental disorders.
- A limitation of the approach is that its deterministic, as it states that 'accidents' are due to your unconscious mind and that your behavior are determined by the age of 5. Freud also believed that free will is an illusion
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