Approaches in psychology

  • Created by: aliekel14
  • Created on: 07-03-19 15:28
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    • Origins
      • AO1:structuralist approach (attempt to understand the structure and characteristics of the mind. empiricism- knowledge leant through experience. scientific. Introspection techniques.
        • -ve AO3: unreliable methods: relied mainly on non-observable responses. This meant his methods lacked reliability. Not reliably reproduced.
        • +ve AO3: A scientific approach which relies on objective and systematic methods of observation. Rely on belief of determinism so can establish causes of behaviour (replicable and empirical). If a theory is proved untrue the method can be refined/ abandoned- self corrective.
    • Behavourism
      • AO1: Classical (Pavlovs dogs learn through association)- UCS-UCR, UCS+NS-UCR, CS-CR) and operant conditioning (Skinners rats- shaping behaviour through +ve and -ve reinforcement ie stop electric by behaviour)
        • +ve AO3: Classical: lead to treatment of phobias- SD- illuminating learnt response
        • -ve AO3: Classical: Not applicable to all species and species tend to find it harder to learn if not necessary for survival: smell= meat vs bell=meat
        • +ve Operant: Skinner relied on experimental method- replicable (controlled) and C+E.Able to accurately measure the effects on rats behaviour.
        • -ve AO3: Operant: Study on animals- not generalisable to humans. Humans have free will- not necessarily determined by =ve and -ve reinforcement. Skinner argued free will is an illusion- all behaviour a product of external influences.
    • Social learning
      • AO1: vicarious learning- learning though observation. Imitation- observe reward (vicarious reinforcement identification)
        • AO1: mediational processes: involved in vicarious learning
          • 1. Attension- attension to a game
          • 2. Retain- skills
          • 3. Motorvated- see reward- expectation
          • 4. Reproduce behaviour
    • Cognitive
      • AO1: Informational processing. Computer analogy- input to output.
      • AO3: computers don't forget- emotion in humans. Eg- eye witness testimony
      • AO1: Schemas template we hold to help us make sense of the world- interpret
      • AO1: Explains how we interpret information
    • Psychodynamic
      • AO1: Psychosexual stages- Freud believed there were stages in development from birth- 10 yrs old which were important in adult personality. 5 stages. Eg stage 1 is 0-18 months
        • Defense mechanisms: Repression(keeps disturbing or threatening thought from becoming conscious), denial(blocking external events from awareness), displacement (redirecting thoughts or feelings onto an unthreatening
        • Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
      • Structure of personality: The id (demanding), ego (balancing others) and superego (feels guilty)
      • Role of the unconscious
      • AO3 -ve:  gender bias (only addressed male development- male Oedipus complex),
        • Support: A pioneering approach. empirical approach)- used case studies.
        • Support:research support- Greenburg support for existance of unconscious motorvation of behaviour +defense mechinisms
    • Biological
      • AO1: Genetics
      • AO1:Biological structures: Brain and neurons
      • AO1: Neurochemistry- Hormones and neurotransmitters
    • Humanistic
      • AO1:Self actualisation-for fill potential.
      • Maslows heirachy of needs
      • All are capable of exercising control/ free will over life :. are all capable of achieving full potential -given appropriate circumstances
      • Positivism approach- what is needed for optimum mental health
    • Comparison of Approaches
      • Scientific vs non scientific
      • Determinism vs free will
      • Nature vs Nurture
      • whereas, on the other hand etc.


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