Approaches in Psychology

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  • Approaches
    • Behaviourist
      • Observable, measurable, controlled. Humans & non-humans the same.
        • Scientific credibility, replicated.
          • CC (Pavlov) dog & bell
        • Ignores free will (environ-mental determinism)
          • CC (Pavlov) dog & bell
      • OC (Skinner) rat & box
        • Real-life application e.g. token economies
        • Ethical and practical issues of using animals
    • SLT
      • Learning is indirect (observe and imitate)
        • accounts for cultural differences
      • Related to consequence of behaviour (VR)
        • Less determinist
      • Bandura's ARMM
      • Bobo-doll
        • Cognitive processes which CC and OC don't explain
        • Demand character-istics
        • Under-estimates influence of biological factors e.g. testosterone
    • Cognitive
      • Mental processes
        • Assumptions on basis of behaviour
          • Scientific and objective lab studies
          • Only able to infer - too artificial so it lacks ecological validity
      • Theoretical and computer models
        • Machine reductionism
      • Schema (experience)
      • Emergene of cognitive neuroscience
      • Less determinist (soft determinism)
    • Biological
      • Everything biological at first
        • Genetic and neuro-chemical basis
          • Twin studies
          • Genotypes and phenotypes
          • Scientific methods e.g. scans and drug trials objective
          • Difficult to establish cause and effect
        • Real-life application e.g. drugs
        • Determinist, complex 'criminal gene'
      • Mind and body are one
      • Interaction between nature and nurture
      • Evolution
    • Psycho-dynamic
      • Unconscious mind has influence on behaviour
        • Pre-conscious
        • Conscious
        • Unconscious
        • Interaction of Id, Ego and superego
          • Ego uses defence mechanisims to keep id 'in check'
            • Ego also reduces anxiety through repression, denial and displacement
          • Unconscious so impossible to test. Does not meet scientific criteria of falsification
        • 5 psychosexual stages determine adult personality
          • Oral (0-1)
          • Phallic (3-5)
            • Oedipus complex during boys conflict and girls penis envy
          • Latency (repression)
          • Anal (1-3)
          • Gential (puberty)
          • Explanatory power e.g. mental disorders from childhood
          • Small sample, can't make universal claims. Subjective interpretations
        • Extremely determinist e.g. even slip of the tongue has meaning
          • 5 psychosexual stages determine adult personality
            • Oral (0-1)
            • Phallic (3-5)
              • Oedipus complex during boys conflict and girls penis envy
            • Latency (repression)
            • Anal (1-3)
            • Gential (puberty)
            • Explanatory power e.g. mental disorders from childhood
            • Small sample, can't make universal claims. Subjective interpretations
    • Humanistic
      • Free-will
        • Anti-reductionist
          • Positive approach
      • All unique, based on subjective experience
      • Maslow's hierarchy
        • Focus on the self
          • Establish agreement between self-concept and ideal-self (self-actualisation)
            • Maslow's hierarchy
              • Focus on the self
                • Establish agreement between self-concept and ideal-self (self-actualisation)
                  • Lasting influence in counselling psychology
                  • Unstable concept - can't be tested
                • Conditions of worth from parents prevents personal growth
              • Western culture bias
            • Lasting influence in counselling psychology
            • Unstable concept - can't be tested
          • Conditions of worth from parents prevents personal growth
        • Western culture bias

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