Approaches in psychology

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  • Approaches in Psychology
    • Psycho-dynamic approach
      • Id: pleasure principle demands instant gratification Ego: motivated by reality principle Superego: morality principle punishes ego for wrongdoing
        • The Mind Conscious: aware of and access without effort, contains the ego. Preconscious: cannot access without effort, contains ego and superego  Unconscious: accessed by psychoanalyst, contains superego and id
    • Social Learning theory
      • We learn through observation and imitation of others
        • Attention, retention, motivation and reproduction
      • Bobo doll study- children who observed an aggressive model imitated the behaviour esp. same sex model
      • Social learning supported by research however lab experiments so artificial settings
        • More complete explanation of behaviour than conditioning but does not take account free will
        • Explains differences in culture e.g Amish not shown violence so don't act violently
    • Biological approach
      • Genetic factors: genes code for characteristics like eye colour but also structure of nervous system. Twin studies concordance rate
        • Genotype- the genetic makeup of an individual      Phenotype- characteristics expressed by an individual
          • Evolution- Darwin proposed natural selection. Best features from generation will be passed on to the next
      • Twin studies do not separate nature and nurture. Also concordance rate never 100% and so environmental and social factors must be involved
        • Real life applications based on understanding of neurotransmitters drugs have been developed to treat mental disorders
    • Cognitive approach
      • Information received from senses is processed by the brain and directs how we behave
        • Schema packet of information organise and interpret information
          • Emergence of neuroscience using brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET scans
      • Wide range of practical applications lead to a strategy to improve EWT - cognitive interview
        • Doesn't take into account genetic factors in mental disorders such as schizophrenia
    • Humanistic approach
      • People need unconditional positive regard in order to self actualise to their full potential
        • Conditions of worth create incongruity between real self and ideal self
          • Given rise to a new way of looking at people's needs client centered therapy
            • Approach uses non scientific methods which are hard to replicate and can be influenced by researcher bias
    • Behaviourism
      • Pavlov dogs Food unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response
        • Bell neutral stimulus paired with food to become conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
        • Classical conditioning learning through association
      • Operant conditioning learning by consequence
        • Positive reinforcement rats press lever to get food
          • Negative reinforcement pressing lever to stop electric shock
      • Watson and Rayner showed that phobias can be learnt through classical conditioning 'Little Albert'
        • Does not take into account biological factors such as neurotransmitters
        • Experiments carried out on animals, we are different cognitively and physiologically
  • Behaviourism
    • Pavlov dogs Food unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response
      • Bell neutral stimulus paired with food to become conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
      • Classical conditioning learning through association
    • Operant conditioning learning by consequence
      • Positive reinforcement rats press lever to get food
        • Negative reinforcement pressing lever to stop electric shock
    • Watson and Rayner showed that phobias can be learnt through classical conditioning 'Little Albert'
      • Does not take into account biological factors such as neurotransmitters
      • Experiments carried out on animals, we are different cognitively and physiologically

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