A level - Approaches to Psychology

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  • Created by: Make7M
  • Created on: 29-11-17 12:15
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  • Approaches
    • Origins
      • Wilhelm Wundt
        • Published first book 1873 - Principles of Physiological Psychology
        • Opened first psychology laboratory Leipzig Germany 1879
        • Structuralism
          • Study structure of human mind by breaking behaviours into basic elements
          • Used 'Introspection'
            • Griffiths  1994 - asked fruit machine gamblers to 'think aloud''
            • P's asked to reflect on their own cognitive processes and describe them
            • Csikzentmilyi and Hunter 2003 - used introspection to study happiness in their work, in positive psychology
          • Limitations
            • Not replicable - unreliable
            • Reports distorted - pretend to have more +ive thoughts
            • Delay between experience and reporting - forget parts
          • Acceptance of psychology as a science
            • Scientific method
              • Standardised instructions
              • Recorded data under controlled conditions, using same stimulus every time
    • Freud Psychodynamics 1900s
      • Assumptions
        • Unconscious processes determine our behaviour
          • Early childhood experience determine adult personality
            • Psychosexual stages
              • Oral 0-1 years
                • Anal 1-3 years
                  • Phallic 3-5 years
                    • Latency 5 - puberty
                      • Genital
                        • Sexual urges awakened, adolescent direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex
                          • Non, Sexually matured
                      • Sexual urges remain repressed, play with same sex peers (Identify)
                        • Non
                    • Unconscious desires (Oedipus Complex)
                      • Develops masculine characteristics ___________Weak or confused sexual identity
                  • Eliminating feaces, has to learn to control anal stimulation
                    • Obsession with cleanliness and control __________ Messy disorganized
                • Oral pleasure (sucking)
                  • Too much / little = fixation __________ Smoke, drink, over eat, bite nails, over dependent on others, gullible, perpetual followers, Develop pessimism and aggression
            • Personality
              • Ego
                • Superego
                  • Its the consciousness and ego ideal. Its a 'relentless policeman' and insists we do the 'right thing'.  Opposes the desires of the Id. It enforces moral restrictions and battle against Id impulses. Develops in later childhood, at which point the child internalises the moral rules and social norms.
                • In between part. Uses its cognitive abilities to manage and control the Id and balance its desires against reality the restrictions of reality and the superego. Operates on the 'reality principle'. Defends itself from Id and Superego through defence mechanisms.
                  • Defence mechanisms
                    • Repression
                      • Denial
                        • Displacement
                          • Transferring feelings from true source of distressing emotion onto a substitute target
                        • Refusing to believe something, as its too painful to acknowledge the reality
                      • Forces distressing memory from the conscious mind
                • Id
                  • Selfish part. Controlled by unconscious mind. Uses 'primary processes' to satisfy its needs. Operating according to the 'pleasure principle'. Comes from two instinctive drives Eros (psychic energy) and Thanatos (death instinct)
          • Unconscious Processes
            • The conscious
              • The pre-conscious
                • The Unconscious
                  • Biological drives, memories that have been repressed
                • Thoughts we may become aware of in dreams
              • Things we are aware off
      • Evaluation
        • Case studies
          • Although detailed and carefully recorded
            • Cannot make universal claims based from small number of individuals
              • Lacks reliability and population validity
        • Development of psychoanalysis therapy
          • Credible - showed significant maintained improvement after treatment
            • Therapies have limited effect
              • Meta-analysis found it worked for 66%, compared to a control group with no therapy 70% showed improvement
                • Approach lacks validity
          • Help individuals deal with traumatic memories in the unconcious
            • However,  other cultures do not value such insight in the same way
        • Culturally bias
          • Used individuals from Western backgrounds
            • Not apply to people of different cultures
        • Theories impossible to test
          • does not meet scientific criteria of falsification
            • Not open to empirical testing
        • Psychic determinism
          • No such thing as accident
            • All behaviour described as 'acts of the unconcious mind
              • 'Freudian slip' - deep meaning driven by unconcious forces
    • Learning Approach - Behaviourism 1920-30s
      • Interested in behaviour that can be observed and measured
        • Behaviour learnt from environment and experience
          • Believes basic human processes are same as those in animals
      • Rejects introspection - vague, difficult to measure
        • Uses lab experiments in their studies - maintain more control and objectivity
      • Identified two forms of learning
        • Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning
          • BF Skinner Operant Conditioning 1953
            • Learning is an active process, we operate on our environment
            • Positive reinforcement
              • Negative reinforcement
                • Punishment
                  • Punish behaviour
                    • Dec. likelihood of occurring
                • Performing behaviour to avoid consequence
              • Behaviour is rewarded
                • Inc. likelihood of occurring
            • Skinners box
              • Had rats (or pigeons) press a lever (peck a disc) rewarded with food
            • Learning through consequence
          • Learning through association
          • Conditioned a dog to salivate to the sound of a bell
            • Dog learnt to associate food with sound of bell
      • Evaluation
        • Dehumanising and reductionistic
          • Portrays humans as symplistic
            • Does not account for free will
        • Scientific credibility
          • Focuses on measurable and observable behaviour
            • Influential in the development of psychology as a science
          • Uses experimental methods, under controlled conditions
            • Results successfully replicated
              • Valid and Reliable
            • Allows for a casual relationship to be established
        • Mechanistic view of behaviour
          • Does not factor the influence of thoughts and cognitive processes
        • Ethical and practical issues of animals studies
          • Exposed to stressful conditions
            • Lacks ecological validity, cant genrolise
        • Environmental determinism
          • All behaviour determined by past experience
            • Ignores possible influence of free will
        • Applications
          • therapies - systematic desyntesation
            • However, cannot treat all disorders such as schizophrenia which has a biological cause
              • Treats symptoms rather than underlying reasons, no lasting solution - cause persists
          • Prisons, token economy
    • Cognitive 1960s
      • Investigates area of behaviour that behaviourists ignore
        • Internal mental processes can and should be studied scientifically
          • Processes are 'private' so cannot be observed, therefore they are studied indirectly, by making 'inferences'
            • Drawing conclusion on the bias of observed behaviour
      • Use of models to understand the brain
        • Input
          • Processing
            • Output
        • Computer models, similarities in the way information is processed
          • Brain - CPU, coding neural impulses - binary, stores memory - hard drive
            • Useful in the development of AI
      • Schemas
        • 'Package of beliefs and expectations from prior experience
        • Act as a mental framework for interpreting new incoming informaiton
        • They develop and get more sophisticated as we get older
        • Allow to process information quickly, prevent us from being overwhelmed by the environment
        • Can distort our interpretations and lead to perceptual errors
      • Cognitive Neuroscience 2000s
        • Study of the influence of brain structures on mental processes
        • Broca 1860s identified how damage to an area of the frontal lobe could permanently impair speech production
        • Using techniques fMRI and PET scans scientists are able to systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processes
        • Tulving showed different types of LTM on opposite sides of the pre-frontal cortex
        • Now use computer generated models, mind mapping techniques known as 'brain fingerprinting', used to analyse brain wave patterns of eyewitnesses to see if they are lying in court
        • Evaluation
          • Use fMRI/ PET scans
            • Supports idea of models
              • STM are separate stores
      • Evaluation
        • Applications
          • CBT for OCD and depression
        • Use lab experiments
          • Lacks ecological validity, do not reflect real behaviour
            • Cannot genralise results to real life situations
              • Lacks external validity
          • Produce reliable and objective data
            • Replicable
        • Machine reductionistic
          • Computer analogy
            • Ignores influence of human emotion and motivation
    • Learning Approach - Social Learning Theory 1960s
      • Agrees behaviour is learnt from experience
        • Proposed behaviour is learnt through observation and imitation
          • Learning can occur directly CC OP as well as indirectly
            • Vicarious reinforcement
              • Observed behaviour is rewarded
      • Bandura Bobo Doll
        • Children observed aggressive or non- aggressive behaviour from model towards the doll
          • Children reproduced physical and verbal aggressive behaviour
            • 1/3 repeated models verbal responses
            • Children observing non- aggressive model produced no aggressive behaviour
        • Follow-up children who saw model be rewarded were more likely to show aggressive behaviour in own play
      • Meditational Processes
        • Attention
          • Rettention
            • Motor Reproduction
              • Motivation
                • Will to perform behaviour
              • Ability to perform behaviour
            • How well remembered
          • Notice behaviour
      • Identification
        • Do not have to be physically present
        • Process of imitating a role model is 'modelling'
        • Role model: similar characteristics, attractive or have high status
      • Evaluation
        • Recognises importance of cognitive processes in learning
        • Over reliance on evidence from lab studies
          • Banduras ideas developed through observation of children
            • Prone to demand characteristics
              • Research may tell us little how kids learn aggression in real life
            • Cannot genralise results to adults
        • Underestimates influence of biological factors
          • Does not account for Inc. testosterone in boys
            • Meaning important influence not accounted for
    • Biological 1980s
      • Everything psychological is at first biological
        • To fully understand human behaviour we must look at biological structures and processes within the body
          • Understanding the brain structure and functions can explain our thoughts and behaviour
            • Contrast to cognitive approach, that sees mental processes of the mind as being separated from the physical brain
      • Evolution
        • Natural selection, is genetically determined behaviour that embraces an individuals survival to continue in future generations.
          • Farmers, select animals with desirable characteristics for breeding and these remain in the gene pool
      • Genetic basis of behaviour
        • Whether behavioural characteristics are inherited in the same way as physical characteristics
          • Twin studies are used to determine the likelihood that certain traits have a genetic basis by comparing the concordance rates, between twins the extent to which both twins share the characteristics
            • If Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than Dizygotic twins for a trait this would suggest it is genetic, as they share 100% genetics
              • Bouchard and McGue 1981 reviewed a meta-analysis of 111 studies which compared the IQ of family members. The correlation figures represent the average degree of similarity between the two people
                • Identical (Monozygotic) twins raised together = 86 raised apart = 72
                  • Non Identical (Dizygotic) twins raised together = 60
                    • Siblings together = 47 apart = 24
                      • Cousins = 15
      • Genotype and Phenotype
        • Genotype is a persons makeup
          • Phenotype is the way that genes are expressed through physical, psychological and behavioural characteristics
            • Genotype + Environment = Phenotype
              • Behaviour depends on an interaction between nature and nurture
      • Evaluation
        • Applications
          • Inc. understanding of biochemicals in brain - drug development
            • Sufferers are able to manage their condition
              • Not always effective
        • Ethical issues - determisism - criminals
          • Avoid taking responsibility in court
          • Screening
            • Those at higher risk of developing disorder - avoid situations that could trigger it
            • Some individuals pose no risk
        • Scientific methods
          • Highly controlled
            • Objective reliable results
        • Reductionistic
          • Does not consider other explanations
            • Cognitive, emotional or cultural factors
        • Supports nature on N-N debate
          • Behaviour comes from genetic influence
            • Studies of cocordance
    • Humanism 1950s
      • Assumptions
        • Rejects scientific models that attempt to establish general principles of human behaviour
          • We are active agents and are all unique
            • Believe psychology should concern itself with the study of subjective experience rather than general laws
              • Known as 'Person Centered Approach'
      • Free will
        • Humans make choices and are not determined by biological or external factors
      • Self- actualisation Maslows Hierarchy
        • Every person has an innate tendency to achieve their full potential
        • Hierarchy of needs
          • Self- actualisation
            • Esteem
              • Love/ belonging
                • Safety
                  • Physiological
                    • Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, excretion
                  • Employment, family, health
                • Friendship, family, sexual intimacy
              • Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others
            • Morality, creativity, problem solving
      • The Self
        • Rogers argued that for personal growth to be achieved, the individuals concept of the self has to be similar to their ideal self
          • If a too big of a gap exists between the two 'selves', person experiences incongruence. so self- actualisation cannot occur, due to negative feelings of self-worth
            • Many of the issues we experience as adults such as worthlessness have their roots in childhood, and can be explained by a lack of Unconditional positive regard from our parents
              • Parents who set boundaries on their love for their child, by saying 'I will only love you if...' is storing problems for the child in the future
                • Rogers as a therapist provided his clients with Unconditional positive regard that they failed to receive as children
      • Evaluation
        • Untestable, vague ideas, difficult to test and gather any scientific evidence
          • Such as self- actualisation in an experimental environment
            • Lacks credibility
              • Cannot objectively validate its assumptions
        • Holistic, considers the whole person
        • Maslows hierarchy supported by research
          • Hagerty found lower level needs in early economical developing countries
            • Whilst countries with advanced stages of economic development saw esteem and self-actualisation
        • Assumes people are interested in personal growth
          • Ignores people may be pessimistic or self-destructive
            • States - development of personality is simply by personal growth
              • Over simplified, ignores situational factors
        • Treats everyone unique
          • Gender research
            • Greater difference within gender than between
        • Culturally bias
          • Based on assumptions of Western society, individualist society
            • Cannot be applied to Eastern cultures, collectivist society

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