AQA Psychology AS Approaches.

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  • Approaches.
    • Origin Of Psychology.
      • Wundt's and Introspection.
        • First ever lab dediated to Psychology in Germany.
        • Standardised instructions made the test replicable.
        • Early roots: Dawrin, Locke, Descartes.
      • Emeregence Of Psychology As A Science.
        • Rejection of introspection by early beahviourists.
        • Scientific approach: behaviourism, cognitive revolution, biological approach and cognitive neuroscience.
    • Behaviourism.
      • Assumptions.
        • Observable.
        • Basic processes same in all species.
      • PAVLOV: Classical Conditioning.
        • Association of Neutral Stimulus with the Unconditioned Stimulus to produce new Conditioned Stimulus and Conditioned Response.
      • SKINNER: Operant Conditioning.
        • Postitive and Negative Reinforcement
        • Punishment.
      • Evaluation.
        • Scientific Credibility.
          • Objectibvity and Replication helped create psychology as a science.
        • Real-life Application.
          • Token economy used in prisons.
          • Focus on here and now, e.g. treating phobias.
        • Mechanistic.
          • Humans are passive responders mental events not included.
        • Extra.
          • Environmental Determinism.
          • Ethical and practical issues in animal experiments.
    • Socal Learning Theory.
      • Assumptions.
        • Observable.
        • Basic processes same in all species.
      • Mediational Processes.
        • Attention, Retention, Motivation, Reproduction.
      • Vicarious Reinforement.
        • Observation leads to imitation if behaviour is vicariously reinforced. (Bobo Doll Experiment)
      • Identification.
        • More likely to imitate role models you identify with.
      • Evaluation.
        • Cognitive factors in learning.
          • More comprehensive account of learning.
        • Evidence from lab studies.
          • Demand characteristics and low validity.
        • Underestimates influence of biology.
          • Agression involves hormonal factors e.g. testosterone.
        • Extra.
          • Explain cultural differences.
          • Less determinist than behaviourism.
    • Cognitive Approach.
      • Assumptions.
        • Internal mental processes can be studied through infleunce.
      • Computer Model.
        • Information processing approach.
        • Mind is likened to a computer and applied to artifical intelligence.
      • Role of Schema.
        • Beliefs and expectation affect thoughts and behaviour.
        • Innate or learned.
        • Mental short-cut, leads to perceptual errors.
      • Emergence of cognitive neuro-science.
        • Brain imaging (e.g. MRI) used to read the brain.
        • Biological structures link to mental states e.g. Broca.
      • Evaluation.
        • Scientific and Objective methods.
          • Credible basis.
          • Lab experiments to produce relaible, objective data.
        • Machine reductionism.
          • Ignores the influence of emotion.
        • Application to everyday life.
          • Artitifical stimuli.
          • Abstractand overly theoretical.
        • Extra.
          • Real-world application.
          • Less determinist than other approaches.
    • Biopschology.
      • Nervous System.
        • The Central Nervous System.
          • Brain and Spinal Chord.
        • Peripheral Nervous System.
          • Somatic nervous system.
          • Autonomic nervous system.
            • Sympathetic.
            • Parasympathetic.
      • Endocrine System.
        • Glands and Hormones.
          • Hormones distributed in bloodstream.
          • Pituitary is the master gland.
        • Fight or Flight.
          • Sympathetic Arousal: pituitary-ACTH-adrenal gland-adrenaline.
      • Neurons.
        • Types of Neuon.
          • Motor.
            • Connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands - short dendrites and long axons
          • Sensory.
            • Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS - long dendrites and short axons
          • Relay.
            • Connect the sensory neurons to the motor neurons - short dendrites and short axons
        • Electrical transmission.
          • Positive charge leads to action potential.
        • Structure.
          • Cell body contains nucleus, has dendrites.
          • Axon covered in myelin sheath divided by nodes of Ranvier.
      • Synaptic Transmission.
        • Synapse.
          • Terminal buttons at synapse, presynaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter.
        • Neurotransmitters.
          • Post-synaptic receptor site links to dendrites of adjoining neuron.
          • Specialist functions e.g. acetylcholine for muscle contraction.
        • Excitation and Inhibition.
          • Adrenaline is excitatory.
          • Serotonin is inhibitory.
        • Drugs.
          • SSRI's increase serotonin activity.
    • Biologocial Approach.
      • Assumptions.
        • Processes: genes, neurochemistry, and the nervous system.
      • Genetic basis of behaviour.
        • Twin studies and family studies.
      • Genotype and Phenotype.
        • Interaction between nature and nurture.
      • Evolution and behaviour.
        • Natural selection of genes based on survival value and, ultimately, reproductive success.
      • Evaluation.
        • Scientific Methods.
          • Precise techniques, such as scanning techniques, family studies, drug trials.
        • Real-life application.
          • Drugs.
        • Casual Conclusions.
          • Drugs may only be associated with symptom reduction, not causes.
        • Extra.
          • Determinist.
          • Cannot separate nature and nurture.

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