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  • Approaches
    • Behavioural
      • Assumes all behaviour is learnt through process involving stimulus and response
      • Operant conditioning: learning through rewards, punishments, P/N reinforcement e.g. Skinners box
      • W: Reductionist- ignores other factors, generalised, deterministic
      • S: Treatment-  valid, lab experiments- objective, real life application- token economy systems
      • Classical conditioning: Automatically connecting one thing with another e.g. family death/song
    • SLT
      • Way of explaining behaviour through direct/indirect reinforcement, combines learning theory with role of cognitive factors
      • Modelling: Individuals that perform behaviour to be learned e.g. parents
      • Identification: Extent to which individual relates to a model- results in imitation of behaviour e.g. people of same sex
      • Imitation: Occurs when child observes a model behaving in a particular way e.g. speech
      • Vicarious reinforcement: Occurs when child sees model get rewarded for displaying certain behaviour, likely to be repeated
      • Mediational processes: Attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
      • Bandura's Bobo doll study
      • S: Explanation for cultural differences, mediational processes, Bobo doll study increases validity
      • W: Ignores biological factors, not certain of cause/effect, demand characteristics
    • Cognitive
      • Assumes brain is like a machine, looks at internal processes
      • Mental processes: Attention, problem solving, memory, perception
      • Schemas: Shortcut to help process information, fill in gaps in absence of full information, fit info into already existing schemas
      • S: Many applications- increases validity, considered scientific
      • W: Reductionist, use of computer models- different to human brain which can make mistakes, forget etc.
    • Biological
      • Assumes all behaviour is genetic
      • Genes: nature/nurture debate, mono/dizygotic egg, predisposition to mental disorders
      • Biochemistry: neurochemistry- chemicals in brain, neurotransmitters- serotonin (lack causes depression)/dopamine
      • Biological structures: cerebrum- two hemispheres made up of frontal/parintal/occipacal/temporal lobes. Mental deterioration hard to stop e.g. Alzheimer's
      • Natural selection
      • S: Scientific- more valid, application, effective treatments
      • W: Reductionist, uncertain of cause and effect, deterministic- we have no control over genes


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