approaches

  • Created by: sophiemai
  • Created on: 15-04-19 13:12
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  • Approaches
    • origins of psychology
      • wundt - introspection created the first ever lab aiming to decribe human nature 1879
      • emergance of psychology as a science waton found intospection subjective so looked at the behaviourist approach - very scientifically 1913
      • freud  psychodynamic approach 1900
    • the learning approach
      • behaviourism
        • looking at obeservable behaviours
        • classical conditioning - pavlov found that dogs started to associate certain noises with food
        • operant conditioning- skinner found rats picked up behaviours when rewarded
        • eval; 1- real life application 2- scientific status 3- genrelisability 4- freewill vs determinsm
      • social learning theory
        • thought learning was down to observation
        • bandura - observation and imitation through indirect, direct and vicarious reinforcement these meditaional process determine whether the behaviour is learnt
          • attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- explains cultural variations 3- better than cc & oc 4- nature of the evidence
    • cognitive approach
      • studying internal process trying to create models- have to be sudied by inference as cant actually be seen
      • theorectical and computor models arre made such as the working memory model - or comparisions of the brain to a computer
      • this lead to the development of cognitive neuro science which studies how brain structures influence cognitive functions - technological advances have helped
      • eval; 1- real life application 2- freewill vs determininsm 3- machine reductionism 4- based mainly off artificial lab studies
    • biological approach
      • fousing on biological factors e.g gentics - inherited and passed on = evolution MZ twins have identical genes - twin studies
        • can be effected by nature - PKU genectic disorder - if cintorlled diet phenotypes can be adapted by environment
        • phenotype - characteristic determined by genes +environment e.g. blue eyes
        • genotype- the particular set of genes that makes up the phenotype  e.g Bb
        • eval ; 1- real life application 2- freewill vs determinsim 3- scientific status 4- assumed causation
    • psychodynamic approach
      • freuds idea that childhood impacts furture life
      • triparte personality structure - ID = primitive, imediate gratification from birth EGO = mediator uses defence mechanisms  from aged 2  SUPER EGO = morality principle encourages deferred gratification
      • ice burg mind analolgy - most of our mind is unconscious - anything we are aware of is conscious but the biological drives, repressed memories is unconcious  the preconcious is to blame for slips of the toungue & dreams
      • psycho sexual stages; must have the conflict in them resolved if not it leads to a fixation
        • 1- oral - mouth pleasure 0-1  f= smoking, sarcasm, biting
        • 2- anal - anus pleasure 1-3 f= obessive & anally retentive
        • 3- phallic- genital pleasure 3-5 f= narcissistic & reckless
        • 4- latency - early conflicts repressed
        • 5- genital - sexual drives & pubery f = difficulty forming hetosexual relationships
      • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- real life application 3- nature of the evidence 4- free will & determinism
    • humanistic approach
      • maslow
        • heriarchy of needs to reaach self actualisation if there is a deficeincy in one of the previous stages cannot reach SA
      • rodgers
        • roles of conditions of worth
          • client centered therapy aiming to provide unconditional positive regard while treating the clients like tey were experts on their problems - revoloutionising psychotherapy
      • eval; 1- holistic approach 2- positive approach 3- real life application 4- cultural bias

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