Approaches

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  • Learning Approaches
    • Classical Conditioning which is learning through association. Two stimuluses are associated with the same response.
      • Links to how phobias form.
    • The behaviourist, also known as the learning approach developed within the 20th Century. It is credited as the development of psychology as a scientific discipline.
      • Conditioning has been in many real life applications. An example is the token economy which is successful in institutes such as prison.
      • Skinner's work received criticism as you can not generalise animals like pigeons to humans.
      • The behaviourist approach says that our decisions are determined by past experiences and that free will is an illusion. Our choices are acutally the product of external guiding each day.
    • Social learning theory which is learning through the observation and imitation of behaviour that is rewarded for others.
      • Links to the Bobo Doll Experiment on children aged 3-5
        • Found that imitation was higher for same sex models and similar age models.
      • Mediation process found by Bandura and also linking to the cognitive approach
        • Attention, Retention, Motor, Reproduction and Motivation.
          • SLT provides a better explanation of human development by mediation processes.  Learning can't just be solely explained by conditioning. Humans store the behaviour and use it to make judgement about when it is appropriate to perform actions.
          • Bandura's experiment was done in high laboratory settings meaning that the participants could show demand characteristic behaviour  The children behavied in the way that they thought was expected, therefore, it does not say anything about aggression in everyday life.
          • The study shows little reference to biological factors. The experiment showed that boys were more aggressive than girls and this could link to hormonal factors such as the difference in testosterone levels.

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