AO3 obedience (Milgram and Bickman)

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  • AO3 Obedience
    • Methodological weaknesses reducing internal validity
      • Perry- stated the pp expressing their doubts about the shocks being real can be heard
        • Hollander and Turowetz- 72% of the obedient pp expressed their doubts such as 'if the shocks were causing harm you would have stopped me' during post even discussion
          • PP are likely to have responded to demand characteristics
            • Milgram- 70% of pp stated they thought the shocks were real. A study later conducted using puppies with real shocks showed 20/24 pp administrated real shocks on the puppies to the highest volt
    • Did not adhere to ethical guidelines
      • Pp were not protected from harm during the study as many of the pp were seen to have been biting their nails in stress.
        • Milgram- asked pp after the study about partaking and 74% stated they were glad they had taken part as they learnt something about themselves. A psychiatrist stated there were no long term damage/harm to participants
        • Were not briefed clearly on the right to withdraw and this was made difficult during the study due to the verbal prods used.
          • However, some individuals did leave and refuse to continue with the study
          • This means the study did not take into consideration the wellbeijng and health of participants. This sheds Psychological research in a negative light as they were not protected. A cost-benefit analysis should have been used here
            • Milgram- cost-benefit analysis had been used as the research has made a great impact on societies knowledge regarding obedience.
    • There is supporting research for MIlgram's study of obedience- Bickman
      • conducted a study on the effects of uniform on level of obedience
        • Milkman, police officer and ordinary person asked inidiv duals in New York city centre, during an opportunity sample, to either stand under neath a bus stop where it says 'no standing', pick up litter or put a coin in  parking meter
          • Milkman-77% Police officer-89% and ordinary- 57%
            • This supports Milgrams idea that situational variables such as uniform can affect the conformity levels.


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