AO2

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  • AO2
    • Standardisation
      • Prescriptivism
        • 'dictate how a language should be used.'
          • Rejects slang, or any non-standard form.
          • Where standard forms are seen as good, and draws its model of English from dictionaries.
          • Resists against language change, and any changes are seen as the 'decay' of language.
      • Descriptivism
        • Accepts language change is inevitable.
        • Uses both non standard and standard English.
        • Recognises importance of standard form but is willing to accept variations.
        • Draws its model of language from the way other people use it and the contexts in which people use the language.
    • Informalisation
      • Adds a more personal tone to the language used.
      • Lead to the increased use of slang.
      • Includes varied use of graphology.
      • Also adds a colloquial tone.
      • However, slang has existed for a long time anyway as it first appeared in the dictionary in the 16th century.
    • Reasons for Language Change
      • Attitudes & Ideas to Language Change
        • Disintegration
          • The idea that English language will disintegrate over time, into a large collection of separate dialects.
            • Example: In a few years time, British and American people would be unable to understand each other.
        • Uniformity
          • The idea that a world standard English is emerging with the increased use of media and the greater influence of communication.
      • Technology
        • Internet - new lexis
      • Society
        • Cultural change and shifts in attitude
      • Science
        • New inventions and discoveries require new lexis
      • Individuals
        • e.g. Chaucer & Shakespeare
    • AQA: 'Demonstrate critical understanding of concepts and issues relevant to language issue.'
      • Worth 16 marks.
      • Testing the theories and concepts studied in the course.
      • Getting high marks means being selective in the theories and theorists you discuss in the response.
        • Your own observations may also be just as valid as that of theorists.
          • AQA: 'Demonstrate critical understanding of concepts and issues relevant to language issue.'
            • Worth 16 marks.
            • Testing the theories and concepts studied in the course.
            • Getting high marks means being selective in the theories and theorists you discuss in the response.
              • Your own observations may also be just as valid as that of theorists.

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