AS Psychology: Individual Differences(AO1 for Psychodynamic Model)

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  • AO1
    • Sigmund Freud is the psychologist primarily associated with the P.D model.
    • Three components; the Ego, the ID, and the Superego.
      • The Superego is governed by our morality principle, containing our conscience and what is morally right and wrong. It has developed by 5 years of age.
      • The ID is present at birth and is governed by the pleasure principle. It is our innate drive to seek pleasure.
    • There are five stages of development; Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital.
      • Oral Stage: the first stage of development, occurring between 0-1 years. It is pleasure gained from the mouth and sucking.
      • Anal stage: The second stage of development, occurring between 1-3 years. It is pleasure gained from evacuating the bowels.
      • Phallic stage: The third stage of development, occurring between 3-6 years. It is pleasure gained from the genitals.
      • Latent stage: The fourth stage of development, occurring between 6-12 years. The development of other activities means less concentration on sexual areas.
      • Genital stage: The final stage of development, occurring from puberty onwards. This involves the gaining of pleasure through hetrosexual relationships.
    • Key Terms
      • P.D model: a psychological approach perceiving mental disorders as arising from unresolved unconscious childhood traumas.
      • ID: the irrational, pleasure seeking selfish part of the personality present at birth.
      • Ego: the rational, conscious part of personality developing due to environmental interactions.
      • Super-ego: the moralistic part of personality seeking to block unacceptable urges of the ID.
      • Defence mechanisms: tactics developed by the ego to protect against anxiety.
      • Repression: the unconscious exclusion of painful desires, fears and memories.


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