- Anxiety and EWT
- Deffenbatcher et al: Meta-analysis of 18 studies . Supports the hypothesis and found that high levels of stress also do the same.
- Christianson and Hubinette: 58 witnesses from real bank robberies were questioned. Found those who were threatened the most were more accurate. Continued to be true even after 15 months.
- Yerkes-Dodson's law
- states recall increases recall until a certain point then it decreases
- The weapons focus effect
- Loftus et al: Used 2 conditions, condition 1 friendly conversation, pen, grease. condition 2 unfriendly conversation, blood, knife. Found recall was poorer in those in condition 2 due to weapons focus effect.
- Steblay: Showed that the presence of a weapon does reduce recall in a meta-analysis.