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  • Amphibian Diversity and Biology: ANURA (Frogs and toads)
    • Small sample of Anuran diversity
      • Stout bodies, large protruding eyes,
      • Cleft tongues
    • Diagnostic features
      • 9 or fewer presacral vert.
      • Developing tail vert forming urostyle
      • Radius and ulna fused into radioulna
        • Hindlimb longer than forelimb
        • Tibia and fibula fused into tibiofibula
        • Long and forward-sloping ilium
        • Long ankle bones
      • Absence of prefrontal bone; fused frontoparietal (skull)
      • Fusion of hyobranchial elements into hyoid plate
      • Tongue w/out skeletal support from hyoid
      • Tadpole w/ keratinous beaks and denticles
      • Protractor lentis muscles attached to eye lens
    • Complex Pectoral Girdle
      • Endochondrally ossified part
        • Seperate scapula and caracoid presumably evolved from a compact scapulocoracoid
      • Transform from generalised adult temnospondyl to primitive modern anuran
      • There is much movement in the leg in the socket of where femur connects to ischium
    • Circulatory system
      • 3 chambered heart
      • 1. O2 blood and dO2 blood enter through two separate atria
      • 2. Atria contract, two streams pass into common vetricle  before being pumped via a spiral valve to the aorta (o2) and pulmonary arteries (dO2)
      • 3. ventricle partially divided into narrow cavities, minimising mixing between two bloods
    • Reproductive system
      • Male
        • 2 testes attached to kidneys and semen passes into kidneys through efferent ducts, then ureters (urinogenital ducts)
        • no penis; sperm ejected from cloaca onto eggs as female lays em
      • female
        • ovaries are beside kidneys, eggs pass through oviducts then through cloaca
      • Explosive breeders: season, few days
        • Temp aquatic habitats, large aggregations and limited mate choice
      • prolonged breeders: season, months
        • Untitled
    • Respiration
      • Skin
      • Gills
      • Mouth
      • Buccal Pumping
        • Ventilation: moves floor of mouth in rhythmic manner 9inflates lungs)
        • Two methods (defined by # of movements)
        • e.g. four-stroke buccal pumping


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