antosocial behaviour ao1

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  • Created by: hmarks62
  • Created on: 06-02-15 11:25
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  • Antisocial Behaviour
    • Justification
      • By justifying violence in the media, children may consider it a standard of acceptable behaviour
      • Violent TV may suggest that problems can be solved via aggression
      • Many programmes have mixed messages - The A Team showed good guys being violent.
        • Liss & Reinhardt (1979): the negative effects of such programmes support justification  as the use of aggression by pro-social characters lends more moral justification of the violence
    • Cognitive priming
      • Activation of aggressive    thoughts/feelings, explaining why children see one type of aggression but commit another
      • Retrieval of aggressive memories is primed by violent scenes, frequent exposure leads to stored scripts of aggression which can be recalled later
      • Josephson (1987) hockey players study
        • Players were deliberately       frustrated and shown a violent or non violent film where an actor held a walkie-talkie. In a game, they behaved more aggressively if they saw the violent film and if the Ref was holding a walkie-talkie
    • Lowered physiological arousal
      • Boys who are heavy TV watchers show lower than average arousal in response to new scenes of violence
      • Arousal stimulated by violence is at first unpleasant, but constant exposure leads to declined responses - they do not react the same way, so are less inhibited in using it
      • Freschbach & Singer (1971): watching violence has beneficial cathartic effects - arousal allows release of pent-up aggressive energies
      • Zillman (1988): Excitation transfer model - arousal creates  readiness to aggress only if there are appropriate circumstances.
    • Observational   learning and imitation
      • Children observe actions of role models and imitate their behaviours, especially if they admire them
      • Children may imitate violent behaviour that is seen as successful in achieving objectives - the more realistic the violence, the more children identify with the situation
      • Phillips (1983): Significant rise in murders after a boxing match, but not after the superbowl
      • Banduras research on bobo dolls supports view that children learn acts of aggression
        • BUT, no actual evidence for copycat violence outside of the specially designed videos
    • Desensitisation
      • Normally, anxiety about violence inhibits its use. However, media violence stimulates aggressive behaviour by desensitizing children to the effects of violence - the more the child sees, the more it s acceptable to them
      • Frequent viewing leads to less anxiety about violence - it begins to be perceived as normal, so chances of aggressive behaviour increases
      • Cumberbatch (2001): People might get "used" to screen violence, but it doesn't mean they will be used to real violence.
    • Huessman  & Moise (1996): 5 ways exposure to media violence leads to aggression in children

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