Antibody production and vaccination

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  • Antibody production and vaccination
    • every organism has unique molecules on the surface of their cells
      • antigens
    • B lymphocytes are activated by T lymphocytes in mammals
      • challenge and response
      • pathogens are ingested by macrophages
        • Helper T cells try to bind to the antigens on the macrophage and eventually activated
          • B cells are then activated by binding to T cells
    • Plasma cells secrete antibodies
    • activated B cells multiply to form a clone of plasma cells and memory cells
    • antibodies aid the destruction of pathogens
      • opsonization - pathogen more recognizable
      • neutralization of viruses and bacteria
      • neutralization of toxins
      • activation of complement - perforation of the membrane of pathogens
      • agglutination
    • immunity depends upon the persistence of memory cells
    • vaccines contain antigens that trigger immunity but do not cause the disease
    • pathogens can be species - specific although others can cross species barriers
      • zoonosis
    • WBC release histamine in response to allergens
      • mast cells
      • histamines cause allergic syntomps
    • fusion of a tumour cell with an antibody - producing plasma cell creates a hybridoma cell
      • monoclonal antibodies
        • plasma B cells fused with tumour cells (myeloma cells)
          • Hybridoma cells

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