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  • Antibodies
    • Structure
      • variable region which has a shape specific to the shape of the antigen
      • constant region which is the same for all the antibodies
      • Hinged region to allow flexibility to take more/less antigen
      • Disulfide bridge to hold the polypeptides together
    • Function
      • Opsonisation. Bind to the pathogen's antigen and use its end region to signal phagocyte for phagocytosis.
      • Agglutination. Using each binding site to bind a different pathogen, the antibodies crosslink into a big clump and easily phagocytosed.
      • Anti-toxins. Some antibodies bind to the toxins released by the pathogen and renders them harmless.


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