Anorexia

Mind map for anorexia covering the Psychodynamic approach, the social approach, features/symptoms and treatments.

It is quite a large mind map. (Also my first one).

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Eleanor
  • Created on: 09-04-13 11:00
View mindmap
  • Anorexia
    • Social Approach
      • It is thought that Anorexia stems from observing and imitating figures in the media. This can be re-enforced through positive and negative reinforcement.
      • Nasser (1986) - Compared a group of Egyptian women studying in Cairo and London. No one in Cairo developed an eating disorder. Where as in London 12% of the women had.
        • This is thought to be due to different role models presented through the media, the women in London where exposed to more 'thin' role models and therefore influenced more. They developed the eating disorder to met societies expectations of being thin.
          • It has also been implied that eating disorders are rare in eastern parts of the world sugguesting that an eastern person who moved to the west and developed an eating disorder maybe be due to adopting the societies way of coping with stress.
      • Gilbert (1986) - Reported that anorexics experience pleasure and pride as a result of not eating (Evidence of intrinsic rewards acts as a positive reinforcement. Thus supporting operant conditioning). The guilt associated with eating is lessened as well as the fear that their weight will attract negative attention (negative reinforcement).
      • Strengths!
        • Helps provide an understanding of the media and it's influence.
        • Explains gender differences in anorexia (available models,stereotypes and social pressures).
        • Can explain cultural differences in anorexia.
      • Weaknesses!
        • Difficult to prove anorexia is due to classical or operant conditioning due to being unable to identify possible causes or consequences.
        • Ignores genetic or innate behaviours.
        • Does not explain individual differences and why only a small percentage develop anorexia when everybody is exposed to the models in the media.
          • Etsenck and Flannagan (2000) - Very small amount of numbers changed their behavior only 3-4%
    • Feature
      • Body weight is less than 85% of the expected weight.
      • 90% of cases are females between 13 and 18yrs old.
      • 5-10% fatality rate due to suicide or starvation.
      • Statistics and facts about the illness
    • Symptom
      • Anxiety: intense fear of becoming fat despite being thin.
      • Behaviour/psycial characteristics brought on by the illness. Symptoms variy between individuals.
    • psychodynamic approach
      • Psychological disorders are a manifestation of repressed emotional problems.         The symptoms of eating disorders symbolise repressed conflicts and motives in the unconscious mind.
        • General Summery.
          • Conscious
            • Refusal to eat
              • Desire to be thin.
                • A prepubescent body.
                  • Lack of menstration/ missed 3 consecutive cycles (Amenorrehea).
      • Conscious
        • Refusal to eat
          • Desire to be thin.
            • A prepubescent body.
              • Lack of menstration/ missed 3 consecutive cycles (Amenorrehea).
      • Uncounscious
        • Desire to remain a child.
          • Fear of sex and adult sexuality. (may be due to traumatic sexual experience in childhood.
        • General Summery.
        • The 4 explanations.
          • Reaction to sexual abuse.
            • Peope may laoth their body for appearing attractive to an abuser-anorexia therefore is a way to destroy thir body to make is less appealing and punish it.
              • Wonderlich et al (1996) - Did a survey of 1099 American Women finding out if they had hadany sexual experiences during childhood and if they presented symptoms of an eating disorder (ED). The women with a history sexual abuse had elevated risk if ED symptoms. There were some issues surrounding retrospective data, but has been confirmed in other studies.
          • Reluctance to take on adult responsibilities.
            • Child-like body and lack of menstruation (amenorrhea), lack of breasts of hips. This allows them to remain depnedant on parents for longer.
              • Explains the physical ideal = face validity.
          • Reflecting low self-esteem.
            • Low self esteem can uncounsciously cause a person to belive that their needs are wrong or they're not worthy of having food.
              • Cooper and Turner (2000)- found that anorexic patients hold negative views about themselves.
          • Battle againdt controlling parents.
            • Evidence shows, parents of anorexics tend to be domineering. Anorexic may be regaining control over the one thing they have full of - their body.
              • Bruch (1982)- found that parents of anorexics tended to be domineering- especially the mother. He believes that the anorexic is trying to gain autonomy (control).  Steiner et al (2001)- found that parents of anorexics tend to define the needs of the child and not allow the child to develop their own needs.
          • The 4 Explanations expanded.
            • Wonderlich et al (1996) - Did a survey of 1099 American Women finding out if they had hadany sexual experiences during childhood and if they presented symptoms of an eating disorder (ED). The women with a history sexual abuse had elevated risk if ED symptoms. There were some issues surrounding retrospective data, but has been confirmed in other studies.
            • Explains the physical ideal = face validity.
            • Cooper and Turner (2000)- found that anorexic patients hold negative views about themselves.
            • Bruch (1982)- found that parents of anorexics tended to be domineering- especially the mother. He believes that the anorexic is trying to gain autonomy (control).  Steiner et al (2001)- found that parents of anorexics tend to define the needs of the child and not allow the child to develop their own needs.
        • Strengths.
          • Lots fo evidence of family conflicts in anorexics.
        • Weaknesses.
          • Lack of emprirical (scientific) evidence.
          • Plenty of people with childhood abuse have not developed an eating disorder.
          • But, there has always been family conflict- so why is anorexia a recent disorder?
        • Treatments
          • Free Association.
            • Is based on the idea that anorexia is a result of internal conflicts causing disturbance. These internal conflicts are unconscious and therefore the person in question is not aware of what they are.
            • The patient is asked to lie on a couch, to keep them relaxed facing away from view of the Psychoanalyst (PA) this is so they do not judge through PA's reaction when speaking about a sensitive topic, this allows for honesty and no distraction.
              • Patients are asked to talk freely about their earliest memories, this is usually where any internal conflict would stem from. They are asked about how they feel about people in their lives.
                • Freud uses Key words and phrases and asks what is the first thing that comes across the patients mind. (This is usually what people thin when Free Association is mentioned). E.g. 'strict' could invoke the response 'parents' this can be important as it may be a contributing factor to why they developed a mental disorder.
            • strengths.
              • Free association is in depth and includes all aspects of functioning from early childhood onwards, so takes all experiences into account.
              • It is a unique method as it is needed to uncover the un-measurable unconsciouseness.
              • Analysis of what the client says during free association is useful tool. Appears to provide access to the unconscious conflicts between the ID and the SUPER-EGO.
            • Weaknesses
              • Not every one is open to Free Association, if the patient is not willing then the treatment cannot progress.
              • Very Subjective, this is a weakness as can be considered unscientific. Any interpretation is possible, making theory un-falsifiable. Therefore, it is not possible to validate the interpretation of free association.
              • Free association may actually be inappropriate for people with certain disorders. Encouraging the client to talk at length about the issues in their mind, may reinforce thoughts that are already obsessive.
          • Token Economy.
            • A list of desired behaviours (e.g. weight gain) is given to the person. Each desired behaviour gains them a token, these token can be exchanged for things of value (trips outside/stopping of a hated medicine). The more the reward is desired the higher the price of tokens, the more the person must repeat desired behaviours, Reainforcing them.
    • Can explain cultural differences in anorexia.

    Comments

    MrsMacLean

    Wow - a very colourful and detailed mind map! Many thanks.

    Similar Psychology resources:

    See all Psychology resources »See all Eating disorders resources »