animal studies

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    • LORENZ
      • Aim
        • Whether attachment was innate in animals
      • Method
        • Clutch of gosling eggs and divided into 2 groups
          • Left with natural mother
          • Incubator
            • When hatched first moving thing they saw was Lorenz
          • When together they spilt into the groups : natural mother and Lorenz
      • Findings
        • Critical period of 12-17 hours
        • Imprint on first moving object they see
          • Guiton 1966
            • Chicks would imprint on yellow rubber gloves
              • Mated with yellow rubber gloves when older
        • important for long and short term
          • ST - protection and being fed
          • LT - mating
      • A03
        • Generalisability to humans
          • Mammalian attachment is quite different to birds
            • Not appropriate to generalise to humans
        • Some of Lorenz's observations have been questioned
          • The impact of imprinting on mating behaviour is not as permanent as Lorenz belived
    • Harlow 1958 - The Nature of love
      • Aim
        • To test cupboard love to attachment
      • Method
        • Baby sized cloth covered surrogate and wire surrogate which dispensed milk
        • 16 baby Macaques
          • 4 in each 4 conditions
            • in 2 conditions - both cloth and wire
              • In 1 wire produced milk and in the other cloth produced milk
              • 2 remaining conditions - single surrogate, wire or cloth
        • Eating patterns were compared
        • Stress test
          • Noisy toy was presented to each monkey
        • Apparatus - test tendency to explore
      • Findings
        • Eating pattern did not vary
        • Monkeys with wire had watery face - sign of stress
        • Noisy toy made a loud noise they would retreat to their mothers
        • Chose the cloth over the wire even if it didn't produce milk
        • When given apparartus the monkey with the cloth explored more
      • A03
        • Theoretical value
          • Profound effect on psychologist understanding human mother-infant attachment
          • Does not form by being fed but comfort
        • Practical value
          • Helped social workers understand risk factors in child neglect and abuse
        • Ethical issues
          • Monkeys suffered greatly - suffering was quite human like


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