Animal Rights

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  • ANIMAL RIGHTS
    • THE MORAL STATUS OF ANIMALS
      • There is no agreed definition on the status of animals.
        • animals are denied moral status by those who claim they have no rationality, no souls, no consciousnes, or that they cannot speak.
        • animals are allowed moral status by those who claim they do have rationality, they do have souls, they are conscious and they can communicate.
          • jermey bentham- measured moral status on whether it can feel pleasure/pain, and animals feel both, therefore they have moral status.
      • The Facts:
        • Animals are conscious and sentient
        • animals show complex social and co-operative behavioural patterns, emotional responces and self directed behaviour- they can grieve and show empathy.
        • the most intelligent animals possess long term memory and sign language- can outperform humans- e.g. chimpanzees at maths
    • FOOD/ INTENSIVE FARMING
      • battery farming, factory farming, keeping animals in cramped and cruel conditions
      • Ethical Issues
        • the moral right of humans to inflict pain and suffering on other animals who possess sentience, social orginisation and cognitive skills.
        • the issue of whether animals have a right to life
        • the fact that the meat industry contributes to human starvation, as cattle consume around 15x what they produce as meat
          • it may be ethically preferable to produce production of grain and other crops than produce more meat.
    • USE OF ANIMALS IN SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURE
      • CLONING
        • Where could the technology lead? human-animal hybrids= big concern
      • Scientific procedures include:
        • develop drugs and medicine
          • vaccines and drugs to produce cures for HIV/AIDS came from animal testing
        • using animals as test subjects for new therapies
      • ETHICAL ISSUES
        • the moral right of humans to do research without consent on other animals who possess sentience, social organisation and cognitive skills
        • the fact that some scientists don't attempt to reduce pain
        • duplication of experiments in other countries; there is no coordination to lessen impact on animals
    • BLOOD SPORTS
      • sports involving animal bloodshed-e.g hunting, fishing, bull-fighting.
      • ETHICAL ISSUES
        • the moral right of humans to kill or maim for their own amusement other animals who possess sentience
        • the negative effect on human psychology- can participants become desensitised and transfer their behaviour to humans?
    • ANIMALS AS A SOURCE OF ORGANS FOR TRANPLANTS/ XENOTRANS-PLANTS
      • the transfer of cells/tissues/   organs from one species to another.
      • ETHICAL ISSUES
        • the moral right of humans to use animals who possess sentience, social orginisation and cognititve skills as a source of body parts for humans.
        • the risk of various procedures, such as the transfer of diseases and viruses from animals to humans. could create a global pandemic.

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