Animal Attachment

  • Created by: Marrigo
  • Created on: 24-09-18 19:20
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  • Animal Attachment
  • Lorenz Research
    • Harlow's Research
      • He tried to understand attachment using rhesus monkeys. He observed that newborns kept alone in a bare cage usually die but if given a soft cloth they would cuddle it they would survive. If their cloth was taken away they would become very distressed.
      • Findings
        • Showed that 'contact comfort' was of more importance to the monkeys than food when it came to attachment behaviour
        • Maternal deprivation: Early maternal deprivation has permanent effect. Monkey became more aggressive and less sociable. Also trey bred less compared to other monkeys and would sometimes negelect their young and even sometimes killing them
        • Critical period for monkeys is within 90 days. After this period attachment is impossible.
        • Baby monkeys preferred to cuddle the cloth mother (clinging to it for 22 hours a day) compared to the wired mother which dispensed milk. They would seek comfort from the cloth covered mother when frightened
    • Procedure
      • Divided a group of goose eggs into 2: One group would hatch in an incubator and Lorenz would be the first large moving object they will see. The control group would hatch with their mother and the first thing they will see will be their mother
    • Sexual imprinting
  • The incubator group followed Lorenz while the control group followed their mother
    • Findings
      • Lorenz Research
        • Harlow's Research
          • He tried to understand attachment using rhesus monkeys. He observed that newborns kept alone in a bare cage usually die but if given a soft cloth they would cuddle it they would survive. If their cloth was taken away they would become very distressed.
          • Findings
            • Showed that 'contact comfort' was of more importance to the monkeys than food when it came to attachment behaviour
            • Maternal deprivation: Early maternal deprivation has permanent effect. Monkey became more aggressive and less sociable. Also trey bred less compared to other monkeys and would sometimes negelect their young and even sometimes killing them
            • Critical period for monkeys is within 90 days. After this period attachment is impossible.
            • Baby monkeys preferred to cuddle the cloth mother (clinging to it for 22 hours a day) compared to the wired mother which dispensed milk. They would seek comfort from the cloth covered mother when frightened
        • Procedure
          • Divided a group of goose eggs into 2: One group would hatch in an incubator and Lorenz would be the first large moving object they will see. The control group would hatch with their mother and the first thing they will see will be their mother
        • Sexual imprinting
      • When the two groups were mixed they would continue to follow whoever they saw first
  • Critical period for imprinting is 12-17 hours
    • If imprinting doesn't occur within that time than the chick doesn't attach them to a mother figure
    • Findings
      • When the two groups were mixed they would continue to follow whoever they saw first
  • Generalising to humans
    • Mammal attachment system is different to humans. Mammalian mother would show more emotions to their young and is able to form attachment at any time. Therefore not appropriate to try and generalise any of Lorenz'z ideas to humans
    • Evaluation
      • Observations questioned
        • Guiton (1966) found that chicks would rather mate with other chicks than a yellow washing up glove as Lorenz suggested.
          • Shows sexual imprinting isn't permanent
  • Guiton (1966) found that chicks would rather mate with other chicks than a yellow washing up glove as Lorenz suggested.
    • Shows sexual imprinting isn't permanent

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