AS Society

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  • Created by: lyds1
  • Created on: 04-06-18 16:12
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  • ANGLO SAXON SOCIETY
    • KING + EARLS
      • Powers of King
        • Land-ownership... grant land to loyal followers
        • Fyrd... raise the fyrd army and fleet
        • Religion... chosen by God to lead
        • Money... control minting + distribution of coins
        • Taxation... decided when + how much tax paid
        • Law making... made new laws, every1 to obey
      • Witan
        • council to advise King, but not limitation
          • King decided who in Witan
          • King decided what Witan gives advice for
          • King didn't have to follow
      • Earls
        • most important men after King
        • governed large areas on King's behalf
        • granted some of King's powers
          • collect taxes from earldoms
            • kept 1/3 of taxes for governing their earldom
          • oversee law and order
            • judge cases  and decide who guilty
          • military power
            • they're King's generals
              • lead loyal thegns in battle against enemies
                • Thegns= local lords... they could complain to King about earls
      • Edward the Confessor
        • Advantages
          • religious leader- people thought God was guiding
          • respected as wise lawmaker
          • married to Edith,daughter of rich, powerful Earl of Godwin
        • Disadvantage
          • been exiled in Normandy for most his life, less support in England
          • no children to succeed him
          • struggled to keep control of Earl Godwi
    • LOCAL GOVERN-MENT + LAW
      • Shire Reeve (Sheriff)
        • King's representative in local government
        • writ from K Edward to his sheriff
          • collect revenues from land in shire
          • collect geld tax from shire when I levy tax
          • collect fines from shire court
          • judge cases + witness my laws being enforced at shire court
          • make sure men are provided for fyrd + all roads + defences maintained
      • Law + Order
        • Strengths... depended on everyone in community knowing each other very well
        • Collective responsibility... if 1 member of tithing broke law, rest were responsible from bringing to court- else they'd be punished themself
        • Hue + cry... any1 in community could call on others to help track criminal, sheriff can do
        • Wergild... compensation paid to avoid blood feud
        • Weakness... powerless to prevent powerful men from breaking law, eg. earls
      • Key Terms
        • shire- earldom divided into
        • hide- area of land covering about 120 acres
        • ceorls- peasant farmers
        • fyrd- men of AS army + fleet
        • writ- written orders from King, royal seal proved it was official
      • Shires, Hundreds, Tithings, Hides
        • each earldom / into shires
        • each shire / into hundreds
        • each 100 / into tithings
    • POWER OF THE GODWINS
      • In control
        • Tostig Godwinson earl of northumbria- 1055
        • Mercia= only major earldom not controlled by Godwins
        • Gyrth- earl of East Anglia 1057
        • Leofwine Godwin earl of lots of small shires 1055-7
        • Earl Go died 1053 so Harold G succeeded as Earl of Wessex-richest earldom in Eng
      • Political Marriage
        • 3 Ediths + a Judith
          • Earl G daughter- Edith- married King Edward
          • Harold G married Edith of Mercia- daughter of Aelfgar + 2nd marriage to Edith the Fair- influential in East Anglia
          • Tostig married Judith- daughter of Baldwin of Flanders
    • EDWARD THE CONFESSOR
      • Harold's embassy to Normandy-1064
        • King Edward sent HArold to Normandy
        • Harold taken prisoner by Count Guy of Ponthieu but William recused him
          • Harold fought for William who rewarded him w/ gifts of weapons + armour
        • Haold swore a v serious oath as part of embassy
        • Why was this important?
          • shows Harold was King Edwards trusted right-hand man for politics + leadign military campaigns
          • Normans claimed that embassy was about plan of William of Normandy to succeed to throne of Eng after Edward died
          • Normans used embassy to claim Harold was oath-breaker
            • took crown instead of supportign Williams claim- had implications for Norman rule
      • Key events in rising against Earl Tostig
        • OCt 1065: Northumbrian thegns revolt against Tostig- march on York
          • Tostig went too far of crackdown of lawlessness- abuse his power to threaten nobles, assassinating rivals
        • Northumbrians invite Morcar (Edwins brother) to be earl instead
        • K Edward orders earls to put down uprise
          • earls find ways to disobey
        • Harold agrees to rebels' demands that, on K Edwards behalf, Tostig replaced by Earl Morcar
          • by 1st November, Tostig exiled- H has weakened House of Godwins but strengthened claim to throne
          • Harold didn't stand up for brother- Witan support because decision gd for eng + would strengthen claim to throne
    • RIVAL CLAIMANTS TO THRONE
      • Edagr Aethling
        • CLAIM- royal blood, descendant of King Alfred the Grwat
        • Strength- strong theory but nothing to back it up
        • chance of success- weak- Edgar was teenage so threat of invasion too great
        • Although Edward had planned to make him heir in 1050s he hadn't taken plan further
        • Eng couldn't risk boy King
      • Harold Godwinsod
        • CLAIM- appointed successor by King of eathbed
        • Strength- Good- supported by witnesses
        • Chance of success- excellent as he had support needed (Witan)
        • Had been Edward's sub regulus
          • proven in battle, willing to go against Tostig
        • Eng backed him
        • K Edward's brother in law
      • William of Normandy
        • CLAIM- agreement w/ King following Harold's embassy
        • Strength- lack evidence but backed by pope
        • Chance of success- quite good due to military success, but only if able to get knights across channel t Eng
        • Claim based on promise by Edward
        • pope's backing link Williams plan to introduce reform to Eng's church
      • Harald Hadrada
        • CLAIM- based on secret deal between 2 other Vikings
        • Strength- weak but had force to call to back claim
        • Chance of success-good as he had 300ships, 15000 warriors, huge battle expereince
        • Could also make claim as descendant of King Cnut (Danish king of Eng)
        • Wasn't going to claim throne until Tostig convinced him
      • Harold's reign + coronation
        • crowned 6 days after Edward died
        • soon after coronation he went York making sure he had North's support
        • most Witan already in Westminster so easy to gather support
        • Put together largest army Eng had ever seen in South of Eng

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