Anglo-Saxon and Norman England 1060-1088

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  • Anglo-Saxon and Norman England 1060-1088
    • Anglo-Saxon Society
      • Peasant > Thegns by owning 5 hides of land
      • Slaves could be freed
      • Peasants could sell themselves into slavery
      • Thegns could be promoted/ relegated to/from Earldom by the King
      • Slaves >Peasants > Ceorls > Thegns > Earls
      • Blood feuds
        • Wergild was invented to prevent long running feuds
          • Criminal would pay a fine to victims family depending on their status
      • Collective responsibilty
        • Tithings
      • Towns and Villages
        • Buhrs
          • Fortified towns
          • Designed to protect from Viking raids
          • Linked by roads
          • Had strong walls and ramparts
          • Trading hubs
            • All items over a certain amount had to be traded here so it could be taxed
        • Villages
          • Houses made of wood and thatched straw
          • A collection of scattered houses and farms
          • Thegns lived in large manor houses
          • Thegns would often build churches on their land, hire a priest and hold services
        • Each shire had its main town- BURH
      • The King
        • King made the laws
          • The people expected the King to keep peace and to provide justice
        • Controlled money production
        • Could give or take away land to anyone
        • Could raise an army
        • Decided what and when national taxes should be paid
      • The Church
        • Traditional
        • Large areas controlled by bishops
        • Bishops were rich and powerful
          • Didn't like Thegns setting up churches and hiring priests as they thought they should do that
        • Monasteries and nunneries were in decline
    • Godwins
      • King Cnut made his favourite adviser, Godwin, Earl of Wessex
      • Godwin helped Ed the Confessor become King
      • Ed the Confessor married Godwin's daughter Edith of Wessex
        • Strengthened their alliance
          • Brother-in-laws had been known to inherit the throne before
      • By mid 1060s, Godwins controlled most of England
      • Became more powerful via key marriages
        • Harold Godwinson married Edith the Fair
          • Had a lot of land
      • Lords to many Thegns which owed them military service
        • So could raise an army
      • Convinced Ed the Confessor to appoint many bishops in their favour
        • Ultimately had control of Church
      • The land they owned was very important
      • Harold Godwinson succeeded his father as Earl of Wessex in 1053
      • Harold Godwinson's embassy to Normandy
        • 1064
        • Mission for King Ed the Confessor (his brother in law)
        • Landed in Ponthieu where he was taken by County Guy of Ponthieu
        • Duke William of Normandy demanded that Guy hand Harold over
        • Harold helped Will in 2 military campaigns
          • Resulted in Harold  receiving gifts of weapons and armour
            • Symbolic relationship between a lord and his warrior
        • After relaying King Ed's message Harold swore a solemn oath to Will on 2 holy relics
    • Reasons for the Uprising against Earl Tostig
      • He had been unjust and imposing new laws and abusing his power
      • He didn't defend Northumbria from Scottish attacks as he was friends with King Malcolm III
        • Malcolm in vaded in 1061 causing much destruction
      • He ordered the assassination of high-born Northumbrian rivals whilst they were his guests
      • He taxed Northumbria too heavily
        • Danelaw areas were not used to it so resented it
      • Tostig was a southerner and Northumbria had always been left to govern itself
    • Contestants to the throne
      • Harold Godwinson
        • Ed named him King before he died according to Harold
        • Proven leader
        • When Ed was concentrating on religious pursuits in his later years, Harold carried out the day to day running of the country
        • Good soldier
        • Not a blood relation
        • He promised he'd help Will to become King
        • Had support of the Witan
      • William Duke of Normandy
        • Ed agreed to name him King
        • Sent troops to help Ed so was well respected in England
        • Harold promised to help him become King
        • Leader, well respected soldier
        • Not English
        • Not related to Edward
        • Witan didn't support him
      • Untitled
    • The Battle of Hastings
      • Surrounded Saxon position
      • Normans used cavalry
      • Harold ordered his army not to move from their position
      • In the early afternoon Wills left flank gave way and the fyrd gave chase
        • Left the Saxon line weak and the Normans took advantage of this
      • The Witan elected Edgar Aethling as king
      • When Will's men were marching back to Dover they feel very ill
      • Will sent troops to Winchester to seize the royal treasury
      • They marched on London burning houses on the way so inhabitants would surrender to him
      • They marched round London as it was fortified to Berkhamstead
        • Edar and Morcar, Edgar Aethling and Archbishop Ealdred submitted
          • They offered Will the crown
    • The Harrying of the North
      • 1069-70
      • Inhabitants and livestock of entire villages were killed and food stores destroyed
      • Shaped modern perceptions of Normans as ruthless and merciless
      • Because Edgar Aethling led a rebellion against Will's rule
      • To flush out and eliminate Northumbrian rivals
      • Will believed it would stop further rebellion as all supplies needed to support it had been destroyed
      • Long term
        • Will's troops salted the earth so nothing could grow
        • Reduced threat of future Danish rebellion
        • Replaced Anglo-Saxon nobles
      • Short term
        • Many people froze and starved to death
        • Many refugees fled the area
        • Some turned to cannibalism or turned themselves into slavery
    • Marcher Earldoms
      • Smaller
        • Easier to control
      • Earls had special priviledges
        • Could create boroughs, m,arkets and establish churches
      • In control of the law
        • Controlled sheriffs
      • Exempt from tax
      • Could build castles anywhere they wanted
    • Castles
      • Motte
        • Mound of dirt
      • Palisade
        • Strong fence made of timber
      • Keep
        • Strong wooden tower- lookout
      • Bailey
        • Where the stables and barracks would be
      • Moat/ ditch
      • Drawbridge
      • Built in strategic locations
      • Used as a base for the Lord of the area
      • Used to dominate territory
      • Symbol of Norman power
    • Lanfranc
      • Believed in reform
        • Increased Bishop authority
        • Banned priests from marrying
          • Celibate
      • Primate
        • Chief archbishop
      • Established Bishop courts (synods)
      • Will supported him
      • Church could make Will look more important
      • Will refused to swear loyalty to Pope so didn't get on well with the church
      • Built Battle Abbey at site of Battle of Hastings
      • Stigand and Lanfranc
        • Part of Witan
        • Shire Courts and Hundred Courts
        • Administration of the Church
        • Legal expertise
        • King's household
        • Ambassador/ King's rep
      • Lanfranc
        • Head of Church in England
        • Stigand and Lanfranc
          • Part of Witan
          • Shire Courts and Hundred Courts
          • Administration of the Church
          • Legal expertise
          • King's household
          • Ambassador/ King's rep
    • Changes to land ownership 1066-87
      • Forfeit
        • Lost land as a punishment
        • Anglo-Saxon had to forfeit their lands
      • By 1087 less than 5% of land was held by Anglo-Saxons
      • From 1071
        • Will owned all land
        • Anglo-Saxons had to pay to keep land, Normans didn't
        • Heirs who inherited land had land had to pay tax to Will
      • Pre 1071
        • Bookland
          • Landholders were given a document by their lord to show their right to the land. This could be sold or passed on.
        • Leases
          • Land was loaned for a set amount of time, in exchange for money.
    • Feudal system
      • Knights dealt with minor court cases in manorial courts.
      • Knights replaced thegns
      • When a landholder died, they had to prove their loyalty to Will and pay him a relief
        • Either low or high relief depending on their loyalty
      • Landholders say an oath of homage to Will- "I become your man"
      • Peasnats did labour service
      • Forfeiture
        • If a land-user didn't provide the service required of them their land would be taken away and they'd pay a fine
    • Church
      • Major landholder
        • Putting Normans as bishops and archdeacons reduced the risk of Anglo-Saxon rebelllions
      • Kept laws and legal documents
      • Leaders owed knight service
        • Military role
      • Advised King
      • King's regent
      • Normanisation
        • Putting Normans as bishops and archdeacons reduced the risk of Anglo-Saxon rebelllions
        • Lanfranc
          • Head of Church in England
    • Changes to Society
      • Feudal system
      • Nobles no longer in a position to challenge King's power
      • Thegns replaced with Knights (had less power)
      • Number of free peasants went down
      • Some slaves were freed
      • Stopped trade with Scandinavia
        • Affected Danelaw areas
    • Changes to Government
      • Centralised power
      • Reduced power of Earls
      • Used regents
    • Sheriffs
      • Collected money
      • Held court
      • Normans more powerful
        • Answered only to King
      • Less legal responsibilities
      • Looked after castles
      • Had a share of the revenue they collected
      • Land-grabbed
    • Norman Aristocrat Culture
      • Moral code towards Knights
      • Males shaved the backls of their heads
      • Introduced family names based on where they lived
      • Got rid of many Anglo-Saxon Saints' relics
      • Language
        • Church documents and laws written in Latin
        • Official language: French
        • Arisocrats couldn't read
        • English only spoken by common people
    • Bishop Odo of Bayeux
      • Land-grabbed
        • Made to give it back in 1076
      • Will sent Odo to deal with trouble in Northumbria in 1079
        • Odo damaged the region, robbed people and took cathedral treasures
      • In 1082, William had Odo put in prison

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