Ancient Philosophical Influences

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  • Ancient Philosophical Influences
  • Aristotle
    • Plato
      • Analogy of the cave1) set in a cave, prisoners tied up 2) light from fire   3)see shadows produced by puppets          4) think shadows are real things 5)prisoner was released 6)struggled out the cave and was amazed        7) tried to explain to others but they thought he was crazy    MESSAGE: more valuable true reality
        • Assessing Platos cave- not clear why it's important for the philosophers to rule if this is only a shadow world- senses aren't always reliable but we need the information from our senses to survive- doesn't offer proof of the existence of another realm
      • Negatives of Platos               - NO PROOF  - third man argument          - negative forms
      • Plato's Theory of Forms1. Plato saw that the world is ever changing and therefore, nothing is perfect and we can not have true knowledge.2. we can recognise justice when we see it because we have an inner understanding of 'form of justice', but this is not perfect. 3. we have this knowledge because pre birth, we were part of the Realm of Forms... therefore our souls are immortal.
    • Aristotle's four causes MATERIAL- made of   EFFICIENT- activity that makes something happen  FORMAL- form or shape is termed FINAL CAUSE- end purpose
    • Prime mover beliefs           1) doesn't depend on anything         2) eternal     3) perfectly     good             4) immaterial and beyond time and space           5) creates movement
    • Strengths of Aristotle         Four causes can work with theories like God or Big Bang   Made study from natural world, reliable
      • Weaknesses of Aristotle Hard to understand his work, evaluate Notes may be students          No proof  Prime mover is uncaused No interaction with the world, irrelevant Russel, Sartre & Dawkins


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