Skill Acquisition

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  • Anatomy and Physiology
    • Thorndike's Law
      • Law of Effect = positive reinforcement learning bond is strengthened in the most effective way
      • Law of Exercise = learning (S-R) bonds strengthened if the sport/exercise is rehearsed/ repeated reinforcement
      • Law of Readiness = the individual must be mentally and physically ready to learn the skill
    • Classification of Motor Skills
      • Muscular Involvement
        • Gross Skill = large amounts of movements
        • Fine Skills = small amount of movement involving accuracy and hand-eye coordination
      • Environmental Influence
        • Open Skills - movements effected by the environment externally paced
        • Closed Skill - self paced, movements not effected by the environment
      • Continuity
        • Discrete Skills - clear beginning and end, must be repeated to start again
        • Continuous Skills - definitive beginning and normally has to be repeated several times to be meaningful
        • Serial Skills - movement skill which has a number of discrete elements put together to make a sequence
      • Pacing
        • Self Paced - performer determine when the movement will occur - linked with closed skills
        • Externally Paced - the environment or other performers determine the pace - linked with open skills
      • Difficulty
        • Simple Skill - little information needed to be processed and little decisions needed to be made, feedback wouldn't be essential
        • Complex Skills- high perceptual load, many sub routines and feedback would be significant
      • Organisation
        • Low Organisation - made up of many sub routines which can be rehearsed separately, but can be put back together easily
        • High Organisation - made up of sub routines which can't be broken down as very difficult and whole part practice
    • Phases of Learning
      • Cognitive Phase (beginners phase)
        • Visual = the used of demonstration and learning aids
        • Verbal - basic information on what to do with positive feeback
        • Manual - physically supporting the movements to build confidence and maintain safety
        • Mechanical - aids such as stabilisers on a bike working on kinaesthetics and equilibrium
      • Associative Phase (intermediate phase)
        • Visual - demonstration of higher difficulty or focussing on one specific movement
        • Verbal - feedback would be more of corrections to develop skills
        • Manual - more advance body positioning safety precautions would be slowly removed
        • Mechanical - bowling machine in cricket
      • Autonomous (expert level)
        • Visual - demonstration of difficulty allowing analysis
        • Verbal - tactics and strategies devised negative and positive feedback
        • Manual - high complexity encouraging kinaesthesis
        • Mechanical - bowling machine at a difficult setting
    • Newton's Law of Motion
      • Newtons First Law - "a body stays at a state of rest unless acted upon by an external force
      • Newton's Second Law - "when a force is acted upon the rate of change of momentum experienced by the rate of the object is equal to the size of the force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts
      • Newton's Third Law - " for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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