Anarchism : Collectivist Anarchism

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  • Collectivist Anarchism
    • Anarcho - Syndicalism
      • Political myth - A belief that has the capacity to provoke political action by virtue of its emotional power rather than an appeal to reason.
      • Syndicalism - A form of revolutionary trade unionism that is based on a crude notion of class war and emphasises the use of direct action and the general strike.
      • Anarcho syndicalist trade unions are similar to conventional trade unions because they both take strike action and to protect working rights, working hours, pay and maintain employment.
      • Anarcho syndicalist trade unions are different to conventional trade unions as they have strikes that lead to revolution
      • Things that they both sometimes do include; Illegal strikes, general strikes, boycotts etc.
      • However people develop trade union consciousness. (Lenin) Focus on short term benefits eg workers rights not revolution. This means there is no political strategy as to how revolution would occur.
    • Anarcho - Comminism
      • Direct democracy - Popular self government characterized by the direct and continuous participation of citizens in the task of government
      • A belief in social solidarity leads in the direction of collectivism and full communism. Sociable and gregarious humans should lead a shared and communal existence, for example labour is a social experience, people work in common with fellow human beings and the wealth they produce should therefore be owned by the common community rather than any single individual.
      • All forms of private property is theft; they represent the the exploitation of the workers who alone create wealth, by employers who merely own it. Furthermore private property encourages selfishness and, particularly offensive to the anarchist, promotes conflict and social disharmony. Inequality in the ownership of wealth fosters greed, envy and resentment and therefore breeds crime and disorder.
      • Anarcho communism is rooted in highly optimistic beliefs about human capacity for cooperation in the ideas like ‘mutual aid’.
      • Peter Kropotkin's ‘mutual aid’ uses darwinism and evolution to prove that species are successful because they manage to harness collective energy through cooperation. He concluded successful species like humans must have a strong propensity for mutual aid as evolution favours cooperation instead of competition.
      • This was evident in ancient and medieval world but has been subverted through competitive capitalism in the modern age threatening the future evolution of humans.
      • Anarcho communists admire small, self managing communities along the lines of medieval city states or peasant communes. Envisaged anarcho communist world would consist of largely self sufficient communes, each owning its wealth in commune.
      • Communal organisation of social economic life has three benefits; they strengthen bonds of compassion and solidarity -that keeps greed and selfishness at bay, decisions are made through direct democracy which guarantees a high level of popular participation and political equality, allow people to manage their own affairs in face to face interaction, removing depersonalisation.
    • Mutualism
      • Mutualism - A system of fair and equitable exchange, in which individuals or groups based bargain with one another, trading goods and services without profiteering or exploitation.
      • - Proudhon - ‘property is theft’ however ‘possessions’ can be traded
      • Voluntary, mutually beneficial, without explanation, small scale industry.
      • However might not work because of globalisation, existing capitalist system, (conservatives : private property creates order and stability)
    • Collective Anarchists
      • Collectivism is in essence the belief that human beings are social animals, better working together for the common good than striving for individual self interest.
      • Philosophical and ideological overload between anarchism and socialism (Marxism) are evident, anarchists have often worked within a broad revolutionary and socialist movement.
      • Anarchists disagree with Marxists on the aspect that Marxists want a temporary dictatorship of the proletariat, anarchists in contrast want an immediate abolition oh the state. (Any state / Authority corrupts and wouldn’t be temporary)Marxists also divide class into two which anarchists reject as there shouldn’t be class.
      • Stressed the importance for social solidarity or ‘mutual aid’. They are against the state as it replaces the ruling class as the main source of oppression. (Restricts freedom, enforces rules, private property etc). State stops the potential of people working together as people work against each other.
      • - They both fundamentally reject capitalism, regarding it as a system of class exploitation and structural injustice. Have enforced revolution as the preferred means of bringing about political change.        - Exhibit a preference for collective ownership of wealth and the communal organisation of social life.  - Believe that a fully communist society would be anarchic, expressed by Marx and the withering away of the state Agree human beings have the ultimate capacity to order their affairs without the need for political authority


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