Spitalfields

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  • An investigation into urban change in Spitalfields, East London
    • Aim / Key Question
      • How has migration influenced the social and economic characteristics of Spitalfields?
      • What is the link between the key question / aims and geographical theory?
        • high level of migration
          • more cultural diversity of shops
          • push and pull factors caused migration
            • housing
            • jobs (offices)
            • healthcare
            • transport
        • gentrification = results in local / regional migration
          • influencing socio-economic characteristics
    • Background / Underlying Theory
      • East London's location on the River Thames
        • always had a culturally diverse community
          • traditionally home to new migrants arriving by boat
            • French silk weavers (17th century)
            • Irish builders (18th century)
            • Polish and Russian Jews (18th - 19th centuries)
            • Bangladeshi migrants (1970s)
            • each wave of migrants has influenced the character of the area
              • most recently, the area has undergone a process of gentrification, which has further changed the character of the area
                • inward migration - migrants moving into an area
                • outward migration - migrants moving out of an area
                • gentrification - making an area that is run down or poor into an area that appeals to a upper or middle class (affluent) class people
    • Impacts of Migration
      • features in an urban area that has been influenced by migration
        • foreign restaurants - origin of shops and restaurants
        • different languages being spoken - see languages (eg. signs)
        • different types of artwork - street art
          • political street art
            • immigrants more affected and involved - politically affected by politics
        • high immigration from LICs - overcrowding
          • wealthy immigrants = Mayfair, Kensington and Chelsea
        • Economic characteristics = tax brackets
        • social characteristics = culture diversity
      • Populations
        • 2.7% of the residents in London are of a Bangladeshi ethnic group
          • 37.4% of the residents in Spitalfields and Banglatown are of a Bangladeshi ethnic group
            • shows high level of migration from Bangladesh to Spitalfields
        • 44.9% of the residents in London are of a White / British ethnic group
          • 25.9% of the residents in Spitalfields are of a White / British ethnic group
      • different cultures of restaurant
      • languages spoken are diverse
      • lots of shops with different cultures and origins
    • Data Collection
      • two types
        • primary data
          • data collected by ourselves
            • eg. gentrification survey and population survey
        • secondary data
          • data that has been provided - someone else has collected
            • eg. census data
      • population survey
        • systematic sampling
          • samples are taken at fixed intervals, for example every 3rd person
            • advantages
              • compresses data
                • easier to see the data
            • disadvantages
              • miss out people and some people in age groups
                • eg. no < 10 years after sampling
      • sampling
        • limited number of measurements taken
        • three varieties
          • random
            • take data at random intervals
              • no system or plan - random numbers
              • no personal selection
              • eg. airport security metal body scanners, eg. residents questionaire
            • disadvantages
              • may not be asking the right kind of people
                • may not get right or useful answers
                  • unreliable in this way
          • systematic
            • samples taken at fixed intervals
              • eg. for every 3rd person
          • stratified
            • choosing a group of the population
              • eg. just females
              • eg. for buggies = parents with children under 3
        • a totally representative sample will tell you everything you need to know about the population
      • residents' questionnaire
        • overall pattern found
          • most people for work and leisure, mainly work
            • leisure = food and drink, shops / market
        • evidence for influence of migration
          • mostly there for work as many job opportunities
          • not many people lived there as there are not many houses in Spitalfields (although many high-rise flat blocks)
          • people who were living there moved for work or university
            • only there for 1-5 years
              • Spitalfields has recently become gentrified so recently attracted more people to migrate to the area
      • land use mapping survey
        • overall pattern found
          • 34/45 shops showed evidence of migration
            • Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Italian
        • evidence for influence of migration
          • chain migration
      • gentrification survey
        • overall pattern found
          • largest evidence for gentrification was independent shops, then 'trendy' cafes and street art
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • people want their own independent shops in Spitalfields as it is becoming gentrified
          • less graffiti and more street art as less crime in the gentrified areas
      • photograph comparison
        • overall pattern found
          • mainly local shops have changed to shops that target a specific class and wealth of people
            • German-Jewish population has changed to Indian / Asian population
              • R.Weiniger wholesale -> Indian restaurant
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • Spitalfields gentrified (upper classes migrate)
          • but lower classes still remain
          • high Indian population = ex-colonised population lead to chain migration -> tourist attractions and areas = more migration
      • population survey
        • overall pattern found
          • mainly a 20-39 year old population
            • 77% of women are 20-39 and 57% of men
          • 2nd highest percentage is 40-59 year olds
            • 12% of women and more than 30% of males
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • 29-30 year olds because of job opportunities
          • 40-59 year olds because many office jobs and this age group mainly gravitate towards these jobs
          • mainly 40-59 year old mean as women generally stay at home with children
          • would expect to see more male 20-39 year olds but we didn't = contradicted
    • Data Analysis and Conclusion
      • population survey
        • overall pattern found
          • mainly a 20-39 year old population
            • 77% of women are 20-39 and 57% of men
          • 2nd highest percentage is 40-59 year olds
            • 12% of women and more than 30% of males
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • 29-30 year olds because of job opportunities
          • 40-59 year olds because many office jobs and this age group mainly gravitate towards these jobs
          • mainly 40-59 year old mean as women generally stay at home with children
          • would expect to see more male 20-39 year olds but we didn't = contradicted
      • photograph comparison
        • overall pattern found
          • mainly local shops have changed to shops that target a specific class and wealth of people
            • German-Jewish population has changed to Indian / Asian population
              • R.Weiniger wholesale -> Indian restaurant
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • Spitalfields gentrified (upper classes migrate)
          • but lower classes still remain
          • high Indian population = ex-colonised population lead to chain migration -> tourist attractions and areas = more migration
      • gentrification survey
        • overall pattern found
          • largest evidence for gentrification was independent shops, then 'trendy' cafes and street art
        • evidence for the influence of migration
          • people want their own independent shops in Spitalfields as it is becoming gentrified
          • less graffiti and more street art as less crime in the gentrified areas
      • land use mapping survey
        • overall pattern found
          • 34/45 shops showed evidence of migration
            • Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Italian
        • evidence for influence of migration
          • chain migration
      • residents' questionnaire
        • overall pattern found
          • most people for work and leisure, mainly work
            • leisure = food and drink, shops / market
        • evidence for influence of migration
          • mostly there for work as many job opportunities
          • not many people lived there as there are not many houses in Spitalfields (although many high-rise flat blocks)
          • people who were living there moved for work or university
            • only there for 1-5 years
              • Spitalfields has recently become gentrified so recently attracted more people to migrate to the area
    • Location
      • north east of central London, on the edge of the city
        • near the city of London
          • busy-ish
            • lots of people
          • areas of gentrification
            • wealth difference
              • diverse
          • evidence of migration
            • cultural diversity
          • safe area
            • didn't see any gang culture
      • east of Liverpool Street station and to the north of Bishops-Gate
        • near a train station
          • transport links
          • easy to access

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