AS Biology OCR Amino Acids

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  • Created by: Sorcha
  • Created on: 10-04-13 13:36
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  • Amino Acids - the monomers of proteins.
    • Functions
      • All ENZYMES are proteins
      • Membrane carriers/pores
        • for active transport and facilitated diffusion
      • many HORMONES are proteins
      • Structural components
        • muscle and bone
      • ANTIBODIES are proteins
    • Structure
      • R Group
        • there are 20 types of naturally occurring  amino acids but they differ because of the R Group
        • Some are large, some are positively charged others negatively charged, some are hydrophobic others hydrophilic
      • Amino Group
      • Acid Group
      • Amino acids join end to end to give a repeating 'backbone'
    • In Plants
      • They are able to produce the amino acids they need.
      • from the nitrate in the soil
      • the nitrate is converted to amino groups and bonded to organic groups to form the products of photosynthesis
    • In Animals
      • Proteins must be taken in as part of their diet
        • these proteins are broken down to form amino acids so that they can rebuild into the proteins needed within the body
      • ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS are those that animals cannot build from materials
        • found in meat
      • Animals cannot store excess amino acids
        • removed by a process called Deamination
          • takes place in the liver, and converted into urea
        • they can become toxic if too much is present


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