America and USSR part 2 1947-1949

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  • America and USSR part 2
    • Satellite States
      • This is a country that is completely independent but controlled by another country.
      • Stalin, at first, wanted to push for more free elections so that USSR could fix them and make sure the only voters were communist..
        • This would get them in power and could remove opposition parties.
      • USSR created an atmosphere of fear and mistrust so that it was difficult for people voting against communist to trust each other and work together.
      • USSR used the police and army to stamp on any kind of opposition.
      • USSR made sure that countries were dependent on them by rationalising industries to stop the satellites being self sufficient.
    • Cominform 1947
      • An international organisation that represented communist parties across Europe.
      • Rejected the Marshall Plan
      • Communist parties were encouraged to strike against the American plan.
        • e.g. 2 million workers in France went on strike in 1947 demanding the French government reject that Marshall Plan,
      • Removed people that were not loyal to Stalin- this was often brutal and in Hungary, 5% of the population were in prison by 1953.
    • Comecon 1949
      • Stalin's answer to the Marshall Plan.
      • Encouraged the economic development of Eastern Europe.
      • Politically it would minimise American influence over easter Europe and USSR.
      • Economically, is ensured that the economic benefits would stay within the soviet sphere of influence.
      • Eastern Europe did not have access to the prosperity of Western Europe.
    • Bizonia
      • British and American zones were operating as one and become known as Bizonia.
    • Trizonia
      • French zone had a good relationship withe Bizonia and become known as Trizonia.
    • East and West Germany
      • Britain, France and America in 1948 agreed to create and German constitute and introduce the new currency- the Deautschmark.
        • Stalin believed these developments were the first steps to dividing Germany.
      • Stalin was reluctant to allow America to have any more influence over  Germany.
      • Stalin did not want American troops in Germany.
      • Stalin realised Germany's most valuable economic resources were in the west and feared they would be used to wage war on USSR.
      • The Berlin Blockade 1948-49
        • Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin.
        • Stalin's plan was to cut Western Germany off from its capital so the new government based in Berlin could not control its territory in western Germany.
        • Truman came up with a plan called the 'Berlin Airlift
          • During January the airlift provided 170,000 tonnes of supplies to West Berlin.
        • It was a propaganda success for America and a failure for USSR.
        • Western Germany became an independant state and Eastern Germany became the sam 1 month after.
    • NATO April 1949
      • Western European countries came up with NATO to keep USA in and USSR out.
      • NATO members agreed that if any NATO countries come under attack, all members of NATO would help defend.
      • Specific aim of defending the West against communism.
        • USSR responded with the Warsaw Pact.
    • The arms race
      • A continuing commitment to maintain a large army, navy and air force, and the development of development of nuclear weapons.
      • By 1949 the USSR had caught up and developed and tested its own nuclear bomb.
        • The Americans then developed hydrogen bombs and by 1953 both countries had these.
      • This prevented a war in Europe.
        • USSR were to scared to start a war even though that had 3 million troops, incase that America would bomb them.
          • One atomic bomb could turn the whole city into ashes and kill hundreds of thousands of people in just a few seconds.

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