Altruism 2

  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 08-05-15 21:56
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  • Altruism 2
    • Seeking help
      • Broll et al (1974): more negative evaluation of helper if you had to ask for help rather than it being offered
      • Help-seeking low if: issue central to self & helper similar to self
      • Computer malfunctions: wait longer before asking for help if 3 potential helpers > 1, is more embarrassing & self threatening - Williams & Williams (1983): low status others asked sooner than high
      • Reasons for not seeking help - Amato & Bradshaw (1985): could solve problem by self, dislike burdening others, hopes problem would correct itself, didn't feel ready to ask
      • High self esteem: respond negatively to receiving help, receive help only when they can repay
      • Low self esteem: don't discriminate between similar/diff helpers
    • Responses to recieving help:
      • When help is interpreted as affection & reciprocity is has a positive response
      • Motivations: low resources inhibit generosity (altruism)
      • Threat X Control model: threat to self esteem likely when help recipient has high self esteem & area connected to self schema
    • Implications of helping
      • Creating positive helping situation = positive evaluation of helper, willingness to seek help, gratitude, decrease self help
      • Negative helping situations = negative evaluation of helper, less help seeking, increase self help
    • Volunteering
      • Over-justification effect: undermines interest, come to view behavior as caused externally, underestimate role of own beliefs
      • Individual determinants: unemployed decrease 50-80%, women 42%, men 38%, environment most influential
      • Who is volunteering? (UK): 42% white adults, 34% minority ethnic group, full time students 47%, long term unemployment 30%
        • Age: 35 -sport, 35-44 education, 45-54 religion & social welfare, 55+ hobbies, religion & arts
        • Why volunteer? older people emphasis on free time, young - 10% community need, 28% learn new skills
      • Key benefits: enjoyment of activity, satisfaction seeing results, meeting people, sense of personal achievment
        • Exposure to pro social behavior = increased accessibility of pro social cognitions


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