Allotropes of Carbon (Combined Science)

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  • Created by: m.turner
  • Created on: 16-05-18 19:14
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  • Allotropes of Carbon - different structural forms of the same element.
    • Diamond
      • Very hard
        • Can not conduct electricity - each carbon atom is bonded to 4 other carbon atoms
      • Can not conduct electricity - each carbon atom is bonded to 4 other carbon atoms
      • Strong covalent bonds = high melting and boiling points
      • Giant Covalent structure
    • Graphite
      • Each carbon is bonded to 3 other carbon atoms = can conduct electricity and thermal energy due to delocalised electrons
      • Creating sheets of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons.
        • Each carbon is bonded to 3 other carbon atoms = can conduct electricity and thermal energy due to delocalised electrons
      • Between the layers = weak, intermolecular forces - soft and slippery = good lubricants
        • Creating sheets of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons.
        • High melting point = strong covalent bonds within the layers
        • Giant covalent structure
      • Graphene = One layer of graphite.
        • One atom thick = a two dimensional compound
        • Hexagons
        • Very strong = network of covalent bonds & is incredibly light so can be added to composite materials
        • Can conduct electricity through the structure = has the potential to be used in electronics
      • Fullerenes
        • Molecules of carbon, shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls
        • Mainly made up of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons, but can contain pentagons or heptagons
        • Can be used to 'cage' other molecules - like delivering drugs into the body.
        • Have a large surface area = great industrial catalysts. Can also make good lubricants
        • Nanotubes = tiny carbon cylinders
          • Conduct both electricity and heat energy
          • Have a high tensile strength - don' break when stretched
          • Can be used in electronics or to strengthen materials without adding weight, i.e. a tennis racket.

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