Alkanes

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  • Alkanes
    • Hydrocarbon
      • A compound consisting of only hydrogen and carbon.
    • Crude oil
      • Crude oil is fractionally distilled to get the separate hydrocarbons into the different chain lengths
      • Heated to 400 degrees then as it cools the separate hydrocarbons condense at different stages
    • Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
      • Alkanes
      • Cycloalkanes
    • Carbons Tetrahedral Shape
      • There are 4 bonding pairs
      • This results in a tetrahedral shape and a bond angle of 109.5
    • Van der Waals
      • Boiling point will increase as no. C increase as there are more Van Der Waals as there are more electrons
      • Branched chain alkanes
        • Lower boiling points as the brached chains result in less points of contact so Van der Waals forces
    • Combusion of Alkanes
      • The complete combustion of Alkanes releases Carbon Dioxide and Water
      • The incomplete combustion of Alkanes releases Carbon Monoxide and water
        • Carbon Monoxide is extremely dangerous as it stops haemoglobon from carrying oxygen around the body
    • Catalytic Cracking
      • Zeolite, 450 degrees
      • Short chain Alkanes used as fuels
      • Short-chain Alkenes used as polymer production
      • Used to break down long chain saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixturre of short chain alkanes and alkenes
    • Petroleom
      • Branched chains hydrocarbons are more efficient burners
    • Radical
      • A species with an unpaired electron
  • Catalytic Cracking
    • Zeolite, 450 degrees
    • Short chain Alkanes used as fuels
    • Short-chain Alkenes used as polymer production
    • Used to break down long chain saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixturre of short chain alkanes and alkenes

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