Alkanes, Alkenes and Cracking

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  • Alkanes and Alkenes
    • Cracking
      • Some of the long-chain hydrocarbons obtained through fractional distillation are not very useful
        • Cracking is a process we can use to break them down into more useful small-chain molecules
      • To crack a hydrocarbon, its vapours are passed over a catalyst at around 500°C
        • Cracking produces a short-chain alkane and seperate alkenes
        • Cracking also occurs when hydrocarbons are mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature
        • The hydrocarbon thermally decomposes
    • Alkanes
      • Have a general formula of CnH2n+2
      • Contain no double bonds- are saturated
        • Doesn't change bromine water
      • First five are methane, ethane, prpane, butane and pentane
    • Alkenes
      • Have a general formula of CnH2n
      • Have at least one double carbon bond- are unsaturated
        • Turn bromine water colourless
      • First five are methene, ethene, propene, butene and pentene


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