Alkanes

  • Created by: rubyboast
  • Created on: 06-04-18 19:22
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  • Alkanes
    • Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons
      • crude oil
        • formed over millions of years from the fossilised remains of plankton
        • found in a porous rock in the earths crust
        • a finite (non - renewable) resource that is used to produce fuels and other chemicals
      • most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons
        • hydrocarbons = molecules made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
      • hydrocarbon molecules vary is size
        • the larger the hydrocarbon
          • more viscous
          • higher its boiling point
          • less volatile it is
          • less easy it ignites
    • Fractional Distillation
      • crude oil can be separated into different fractions by fractional distillation
        • each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms
      • most of the hydrocarbons obtained are alkenes
    • Alkenes
      • carbon atoms are linked to four other atoms by single bonds
      • saturated hydrocarbons - because they contain the maximum amount of bonds possible
      • fairly unreactive, but they burn well
      • CnH2n+2
      • shorter- chain alkanrs release energy more quickly by burnig, so there is a greater demand for them a s fuel
    • Burning Fuels
      • most are compounds of carbon and hydrogen
        • many also contain sulfur
      • combustion (burning) of hydrocarbon fuels
        • both carbon and hydrogen are oxidised
        • energy is released
        • waste products are produced - atmosphere
      • if combustion not complete = carbon monoxide, solid particles and unburnt fuels produced

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