Organic Compounds

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  • Created by: SHB4
  • Created on: 06-06-17 17:51
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  • Hydrocarbons
    • organic compounds contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms.
      • compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons
      • some organic compounds contain other elements like oxygen, as well as carbon and hydrogen. these are not hydrocarbons
    • Organic Compounds
      • they are built around carbon
      • very many carbon-containing compounds, with a vary of different shapes, sizes and components
      • compounds of carbon are very important
      • compounds of carbon form the building blocks of all living things
      • the word 'organic'' originally meant 'from living organisms'
      • Classifying Organic Compounds
        • carbon atoms are able to bond together and form an endless variety of chain, ring and network structures.
        • there are millions of different organic compounds
        • Examples of Organic Compound Groups
          • alkanes
          • alkenes
          • alcohols
          • carboxylic acids
      • Homologous Series
        • some compounds have similar structures that differ from each other buy the addition of an extra link
          • these can then be given a general formula.
        • this term is used to describe compounds with similar structures and properties that can also be given a general formula
      • Alkanes
        • burnt to release useful energy
          • major components of crude oil and natural gas
        • not very reactive
          • C-H bonds
          • C-C bonds
            • difficult to break
              • C-H bonds
        • Combustion
          • reactions @ high temps.
          • a rapid reaction between substance and oxygen that releases heat and light energy
          • make good fuels
            • (fuel= substance reacts with oxygen to release useful energy
          • alkane + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
          • products
            • carbon particles (soot)
            • water
            • carbon dioxide
        • saturated hydrocarbons
        • members all end in -ane
          • 1 carbon = METHane
          • 2 carbon = ETHane
          • 3 carbon = PROPane
          • 4 carbon = BUtane
        • more carbon atoms the higher the boiling point
      • Alkenes
        • more reactive than alkanes
          • C-H bonds
          • C-C bonds
          • C=C bonds
            • easier to break
        • complete combustion
          • alkene + oxygen -> water + carbon dioxide
          • occurs when plenty of oxygen
        • incomplete combustion
          • alkene + oxygen -> carbon + carbon monoxide + water
          • tend to produce smoky flames when burnt in air
          • occurs when not enough oxygen is present
        • addition reactions
          • generally involve breaking of double bond
            • and subsequent formation of 2 new single covalent bonds
          • small molecule adds across C=C bond to product 1 product
            • unsaturated to saturated
          • occur with ~hydrogen ~ water ~halogen
            • hydrogen
              • addition of a molecule of hydrogen across C=C bond
                • C=C bond broken = 2 new single covalent bonds. making an alkane
            • water
              • alkene react with steam produce alcohol
              • alkene + water -> (catalyst) alcohol
              • water molecules in steam add across double bond, causing to break. high temps. and pressure needed for reaction take place. phosphoric acid catalyst can be used increase rate of reaction.
              • conditions vary depending on the alkene used
            • halogen
              • react rapidly @ room temp.
              • group 7 elements
              • chlorine most reactive so reacts quickly, iodine least reactive, slowly reacts
              • halogen adds across alkene double bond, causing it to break. new covalent bonds formed between halogen and alkene to produce saturated molecule
      • Crude Oil
        • fossil fuel directly from Earth's crust
        • one of most important substances in world
        • a complex mixture of hundreds of compounds
          • compounds not chemically combined together
            • can be separated using fractional distillation
          • most are hydrocarbons and most of these are alkanes
        • used to make fuel for transport, heating and generating electricity and plastics and 100s of petrochemicals
        • dead animal and plant matter collected in sediment on seafloor.
          • heat and pressure turns sediment to rock (sedimentary rock)
        • Producing
          • 78.9 million barrels of opil produced a day
          • Saudi Arabia, Russia, USA, Iran and Chain top 5 oil producing countries in 2008
        • Consuming
          • over 80 million barrels consumed a day
          • USA, China, Japan, India and Russia top 5 consuming countries in 2008
        • Problems
          • Politics
            • lots of crude oil extracted from politically unstable  countries
            • high value and the economic importance of oil can cause conflict between countries
            • conflicts can result in oil supplies around world being disrupted.
          • Environmental
            • oil spills cause lots of damage
              • birds covered in oil results on them losing waterproof properties of their feathers
                • means it gets cold and wet and could eventually die
                • when trying to clean its feathers it will ingest the oil and become poisoned
              • detergents used to disperse and clean  oil spills can be damaging to sea life
          • Finite Resources
            • crude oil is a finite resource
              • (wont last forever)
            • takes millions of years for crude oil to form
              • predicted to run out in 30 years
            • 90% of crude oil extracted burned as fuel
            • other important petrochemicals made from oil- including some used to make medicines
              • may be difficult to find alternative ways to obtain these chemicals
                • have to decide what the most import use for the remaining oil is
                  • fuel or pharmaceuticals
        • Deepwater Horizon
          • 20th April 2010, offshore oil platform, near Lousiana coast, exploded
          • 11 workers killed
          • Gulf of Mexico 4.9 million barrels of oil leaked into the sea
          • took 87 days after the explosion to cap the leak
          • cost $40 billion
          • 4678 animals found dead, in August 2010
            • many more received treatment
            • at least 400 birds, 500 turtles and 70 dolphins (of the dead)
          • Gulf of Mexico's large fishing and tourist industries were badly effected
          • long-term economic and environmental impacts worldwide
    • Unsaturated hydrocarbons
      • hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double or even triple bonds.
    • Saturated hydrocarbons
      • hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are joined by single bonds only

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