Tsar Alexander II's Reforms

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  • Created by: Zguy115
  • Created on: 24-03-15 18:07
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  • Alexander II's Reforms
    • Emancipation Ukase (1861)
      • Abolished Serfdom
        • Serfs released from their ties to the landowners and became free men.
      • Peasents were required to pay 'redemption payments'
        • These payments came in the form of 49 annual payments.
      • Serfs allowed to keep their land.
        • Each serf family (excluding domestic serfs) were entitled to keep its cottage and allotment.
    • Judicial Reforms
      • Judges were given better training and pay.
        • They were therefore less open to bribery.
      • Freedom of Press was extended to legal reporting.
      • The senate heard appeals and was the court of first instance for the most dangerous crimes.
    • Church Reforms
      • Relaxation of restrictions in Poland.
      • Young, talented charasmatic
    • Local Government Reforms
      • District councils (Uezd) and provincial councils (Zemstva) were set up.
      • Zemstva were to give 'poor relief' in times of hardship.
      • Zemstva were to have a range of powers to improve public services as well as develop industrial projects.
    • Military Reforms
      • Service in the army could no longer be given as a punishment in courts.
      • Length of service was reduced from 25 years to 15 years
        • 6 years were spent in the actual army and 9 years were spent in the reserves.
      • Corporal punishments were abolished and military punishments were made less severe.
    • Educational Reforms
      • Schools were now open to all, regardless of class or sex.
      • Responsibility for schooling transferred from the Church to the Zemstva
      • Universities given the right to govern themselves and appoint their own staff, subject to the approval of the Ministry of Education.
    • Censorship Reforms
      • Foreign publications could be sold in Russia, with government approval.
      • Press were allowed to comment on government policy for the first time in 1865.
      • Censorship was placed under the control of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
    • Economic Reforms
      • Liberal trade policies and lower tariffs were introduced.
      • Foreign investment in Russia was encouraged.
        • The government guaranteed  annual dividends to all investors.
      • Tax-farming was abolished.

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