Reforms of Alexander II and Analysis

mindmap on the reforms of Alexander II and whether or not they had a positive or negative effect 

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  • Alexander II's Reform
    • Military reforms: This was needed because the Crimean war highlighted the need for changed in traditional practises. Dmitrii Milyutin took a big part in military reform.
      • Positives: 1. Modern weaponry was introduced. 2. Military colleges were set up meaning that soldiers could get better training. 3.Service in the army could no longer be given as a punishment by the courts
        • Negatives: 1. Alexander gave his assert to the reforms in 1874 however they were put into practice in 1875. 2. There were still a subsequent amount of illiterate peasants who did not benefit from training programmes.
    • Local government reforms: The Zemstva were elected bodies.
      • Positives: The zemstva were to have a range of powers to improve public services such as roads, schools and public health. 2. The zemstva were to administer poor relief in times of hardship.
        • Negatives: 1. The zemstva's elected bodies were mostly from the nobility and church. the votes were arranged in a way that allowed the nobility to dominate. 2. the Zemstva's influence was decreased by the authority of the tsar and the zemstva now wanted a national say as they had a taste of politics.
    • Judicial Reforms
      • Positives: 1. Judges were paid better to decrease the likelihood of bribery. 2. A fair system was created as a jury was enforced.
        • Negatives: 1. Juries were not enforced in places like Poland. 2. Judges were elected by the tsar.
          • The case of Vera Zazulich: Daughter of a noble. shot General Trepov and was found not guilty as the jury felt sympathy for her and in an attempt to stand up to authorities
    • Education Reforms
      • Positive: Universities were able to appoint their own staff subject to approval of the ministry of education.2. primary and secondary school were extended
      • Negatives: Education was used to enforced the rules of the tsar and students were taught that the tsar was appointed by god.
  • Positives: 1. Judges were paid better to decrease the likelihood of bribery. 2. A fair system was created as a jury was enforced.
    • Negatives: 1. Juries were not enforced in places like Poland. 2. Judges were elected by the tsar.
      • The case of Vera Zazulich: Daughter of a noble. shot General Trepov and was found not guilty as the jury felt sympathy for her and in an attempt to stand up to authorities

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