Alexander III as Tsar

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  • Alexander III as Tsar
    • Tutored by Pobedonostev
      • Strong autocratic and patriotic views
        • Appointed Conservative ministers
      • Pob. wrote Manifesto of Unshakeable Autocracy, released by Alex III
        • Denounced his father's quasi-liberal reforms
        • Loris-Melikov plan abandoned, reforming ministers resigned
    • Changes
      • Education
        • 1884- Teachers, professors etc had to be approved based on 'religious, moral and patriotic orientation'
        • Children from lowest classes restricted to primary education
        • 21% of population literate by 1897
          • Overall number of schools and those in education had increased
      • Judicial System
        • Defendants still had no right to legal representation
        • 1885- Minister of Justice given extra powers
        • 1887- Secret courts allowed
        • 1887- Property and educational standards of jurors raised
        • 1889- Ministry appointed town judges
        • 1889- Volost courts put under direct jurisdiction of Land Captains
      • Censorship
        • 1882- So-called 'temporary regulations' allowed newspapers to be closed down with a life ban on editors and publishers
        • Censorship extended to the theatre, arts and culture; Russification enforced
      • Police
        • Okhrana recruited more spies, counter-spies and agent provocateurs
        • 1882 Statute on Police Surveillance gave them massive powers
          • Could search, arrest, detain, question, imprison or exile anyone who they even thought had committed a crime
      • Positives?
        • 1881- Cancelled ex-serfs arrears in 37 main provinces
        • 1883- Peasant Land Bank
        • 1885- Inheritance tax and poll tax shifted fiscal burden from lower classes
        • Some reform in factory legislation
      • Local Govt.
        • 'Land Captain' created July 1989
          • Overturned zemstva decisions, responsible for countryside government and could ignore normal judicial process
            • Right to appeal to Crown Courts after being tried by Land Captain
        • Act in 1990 reduced peasants' vote in zemstva
        • June 1892- Electorate reduced to the owners of property above a certain value


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