ALEXANDER II CONDENSED

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  • Alexander II
    • Background 1855:
      • underdeveloped
      • 11:1 - village to town dwellers
      • 85% illiterate peasants
    • Motives for reform
      • Political - nobles debt and declining income
      • Economic - mir prevented movement and serfs heavy tax
        • 54 million debt 1859
      • social - westernisers & Nihilists - no autocracy
    • Procedure
      • 1861 - private serfs, 1866 - state serfs
      • not liberating
      • 49 redemption payments
      • mir collect tax and landowners keep land.
    • Further reform
      • Military 1874 - conscription, service 25 - 15
      • Local gov 1864 - zemstva, councils and a vote (weighed 5:1)
      • Judicial 1864 - equal judgement, permanent judges, better pay
      • Education 1864 - free primary, self-govern UNI 1863 - numbers doubled.
    • Opposition
      • 1862 Young Russia - 1863 The organisation, led to zemstva restricted.
      • Russo-Turkish war and famine 1870s led to Peoples Will (black partition) 1879 - assassinated tsar 1881

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