russia alexander II

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  • Alexander II
    • Reasons for reforms
      • Crimean War 1853-1856
      • to maintain autocracy
      • Party of St Petersburg
        • Milyutin brothers
        • Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna
        • Duke Konstantin
      • Increase in peasant uprisings - doubled since 1844
    • Reforms
      • The Emancipation of the Serfs
        • 19th February 1861
        • freed 51 million serfs
          • 10.5 million privately owned
          • 9.5 state owned
        • redemption payments
          • spread out over time was little more than normal rent
          • 49 years with 6% interest
        • kulaks
          • brought more land
            • more surplus grain
              • better economy
          • caused resentment
            • violent outbreaks
        • traditional mirs
          • still tied to till 1905
          • limited entrepreneurs
            • stop economic growth
          • traditional farming methods
            • Limited allocattions
              • Unable to produce surplus
                • limited economy
        • Limited allocattions
          • Unable to produce surplus
            • limited economy
        • Working class develops
          • enterprise developed through investment in industries
          • raised living standards
          • move to cities
          • increased press
            • higher political awareness
              • student protests
                • moscow
                • Kazan
                • St Petersburg
        • Land owners
          • lost influence
            • lost support of the Tsar
          • Years of the red cockerel
        • changes in the military
          • reduced conscription from 25 yrs to 15 yrs
          • no corporal punishment
          • basic education
            • opportunities for better jobs
      • Military reforms
        • 1862-74
        • originally
          • liable for conscription for 25 years
          • lived in a military colonny
          • very harsh disciplines
        • 1861 - brutal punishments ended
        • all men over 20 eligible for conscription
        • limitations
          • men still got substitutes
          • low levels of education
          • most officers were still gentry
          • barely won the Turkish war 1877-79
        • Dimitry Muliutin
          • smaller
          • professional
        • no military colonies
      • 1864 Education reforms
        • number of primary schools increased
          • 8000 in 1856 to over 32000 in 1880
        • Alexander Golovnin minister of education from 1862-1867
        • universities governed themselves and appointed their own staff
        • Zemstva responsible for schooling
        • modern schools established and students could go to university from both modern and gimnazii schools
        • 'open to all' regardless of sex or class
      • 1860 creation of state bank
        • reform of tax collection
      • 1864-70 local government reforms
        • Zemstva - chosen by electoral colleges
          • although each class had their own colleges the nobles still dominated
          • Improved public services
          • very limited power no control over state or local taxes
          • Made of professionals- doctors lawyers and teachers
        • 1870 Dumas were set up in towns
        • contradicted autocracy as they wre elected representatives and democratic
      • 1864 Judiciary reform
        • single system of local, provincial and national courts.
          • Volost courts for peasants
        • cases heard before a barrister and jury
        • Tsar picked judges and got training and better pay so less likely to take bribes
        • local justices of peace were elected every three years and were independent of political control
        • national trails were recorded in the 'Russian courier'
        • ecclesiastical and military courts were exculed from reforms
      • 1865 censorship
        • relaxation of press censorship
        • restrictions on publisher reduced and foreign books could be published with the governments approval
        • books published grew from 1020(1855) to 10,691 (1894)
    • in the 15 years following his accession there were alterations but some continuity
      • Agriculture still heavily affected the economy with its problems
      • nobles class remained dominate
      • peasant society changed little
    • 1866 assassination attempt
      • his wife and eldest son died which started some reduction in reforms
        • he replaced liberal ministers with more conservative ministers
          • Dmitry Tolstoy minister of education
            • zemstvas power over education reduced
            • only students in gimnazii can go to university
            • critical thinking subjects forced out and traditional subjects enforced like maths and latin
            • more state teachers trained but to increase tsarist control
          • pyotr shuvalov as head of the third section
            • strengthened police and encouraged third section
            • 'show' trails were introduced to be used as a deterrent but backfired and special secret courts developed
    • his wife and eldest son died which started some reduction in reforms
      • he replaced liberal ministers with more conservative ministers
        • Dmitry Tolstoy minister of education
          • zemstvas power over education reduced
          • only students in gimnazii can go to university
          • critical thinking subjects forced out and traditional subjects enforced like maths and latin
          • more state teachers trained but to increase tsarist control
        • pyotr shuvalov as head of the third section
          • strengthened police and encouraged third section
          • 'show' trails were introduced to be used as a deterrent but backfired and special secret courts developed
    • reactionaries feared the spread of 'western' ideas
      • The Loris-Melikov constitution
        • release political prisoners
        • relax cenosrship
        • remove salt tax
        • lift zemstva restriction
        • abolish third section
          • replace with okhrana
        • would have create more freedom but was assassinated on the day he was going to hand it in
      • Assassination
        • 13 march 1881
        • the people's will threw a bomb at him which injured his guards and he got out to help and they threw another bomb which killed him

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