Carbonyl Compounds ( Aldehydes and ketones)

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  • carbonyl compounds
    • Aldehydes
      • aldehydes general formula RCHO
    • Ketones
      • consist of C to O double bond and at least two carbons attached
    • preparing carbonyl compounds by oxidation
      • preperation of aldehydes
        • aldehydes are made by partial oxidation of primary alcohols
          • Reagents, primary alcohol + potassium dichromate (VI) in sulhuric acid
          • distil of product as it formed
          • Oberservation: Colour changes from orange - green as dichromate (VI) is reduced to chromium(III)
          • CH3CH2OH + [O] --> CH3CHO + H2O
      • prepartion of ketones
        • ketones are made by oxidation of a secondary alcohol
        • reagents: Secondary Alchol + Potassium dichromate (VI) in dilute sulute acid
        • Oberservation: colour changes from organge - green as Dichromate (VI) is reduced to Chromium (III)
        • CH3CH(OH)CH3 ++ [O] --> CH3COCH3 + H2O
    • Reduction
      • reagnets: carbonyl compound with reducing agent
        • lithium tetrahydridoaluminate in dry ether,LiAlh4
      • CH3CH2COOH(l) + 2[H] --> CH3CH2CH2Oh(l) + H2)
    • functional group : C=O Bond
      • O atom is more electronegative = the C=O Dipole bond has more e- attracted to O
      • made of sigm and pi bond
        • pi bond = overlap of the p orbital of C and O atom
    • Oxidation of Aldehydes and ketones
      • ALdehydes are oxidised to Carboxlyic acis
      • Ketones cannot be oxidsed firther


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