Aldehydes & Ketones

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  • Created by: Carys
  • Created on: 27-11-15 20:49
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  • Aldehydes & Ketones
    • Carbonyl  (C=O)
      • Brady's reagent
        • tests for C=O
        • bright orange precipitate
          • derivative of carbonyl compound
            • measuring melting point to identify compound
        • 2,4-DNPH
      • Iodine
        • carbonyls that contain a methyl carbonyl group react when heated with iodine in the presence of an alkali
          • yellow precipitate of CHI3 and an antiseptic smell
    • Aldehydes
      • Oxidation
        • carboxylic acid
          • when heated under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate ions
            • colour change: orange to green
        • Tests for Aldehydes
          • Tollen's reagent
            • colourless solution of silver nitrate dissolved in aqueous ammonia
              • if heated with an aldehyde  in a test tube in a water bath - silver mirror formed
          • Fehling's solution
            • blue solution of complexed copper (II) ions dissolved in sodium hydroxide
              • if heated with an aldehyde in a test tube in a water bath the copper (II) ions are  reduced to a brick-red precipitate
            • Benedict's solution
              • copper (II) ions are dissolved in sodium carbonate instead
                • brick-red precipitate of copper (I) oxide
      • Reduction via reducing agent LiAlH4 in dry diethyl ether
        • aldehyde = primary alcohol
        • ketone = secondary alcohol
  • Brady's reagent
    • tests for C=O
    • bright orange precipitate
      • derivative of carbonyl compound
        • measuring melting point to identify compound
    • 2,4-DNPH

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