Alcohols

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  • Created by: maura
  • Created on: 22-03-13 16:32
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  • Alcohols
    • Reactions
      • Combustion  - Burn in plentiful supply of oxygen to produce CO2 and H2O and release energy
      • Reaction with sodium - Na sinks in alcohol (more dense) and H2 is produced. Alcohol acts as an acid. I.e - Sodium + ethanol = sodium ethoxide + H2. This reaction used to remove water vapour from a liquid.
      • Substitution reactions to form halogenoalkanes - alcohol + phosphorus chloride (PCl5) = chloroalkane + hydrogenchloride + POCl3.
        • Used as a test for presence of -OH group:  add PCl5 and steamy fumes of HCl produced. To test for HCl add Conc NH3 and dense white fumes produced (NH4Cl)
      • Oxidation of alcohols
        • Primary - oxidise to form aldehydes then to carboxylic acids (common product)
        • Secondary - oxidise to form ketones + H2O
        • Tertiary - Do not oxidise!
    • Types
      • Secondary(2o) 2 Alkyl groups and 1 H atom attached to the Carbon joined to the -OH
      • Tertiary (3o)     3 alkyl groups attached to the carbon joined to the -OH
      • Primary (1o)   2 H atoms attached to the Carbon joined to the -OH
  • Reaction with sodium - Na sinks in alcohol (more dense) and H2 is produced. Alcohol acts as an acid. I.e - Sodium + ethanol = sodium ethoxide + H2. This reaction used to remove water vapour from a liquid.

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