Aid and trade, industrialisation, urbanisation, the environment and war and conflict

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  • Aid and trade, industrialisation, urbanisation, the environment and war and conflict
    • Aid
      • Types of aid
        • Bilateral and Multilateral aid
          • Marren
            • 80% of all western aid is from official sources
      • Why give aid?
        • Bandyopadhyay and Vermann
          • A majority of America's aid went to Afghanistan, Iraq and Egypt
        • Radelet
          • Aid is an opportunity to promote the American values of openness, prosperity, freedom and democracy
      • Is aid a good or bad thing?
        • The case for aid
          • Sachs
            • 'Aid works when it is practical, targeted, science-based and measurable.'
          • Barder
            • Every year foreign aid pays for the vaccinations of 80% of the world's children
          • Addison et al
            • The overall evidence suggests aid has had a respectable impact on economic growth
        • Paul Collier
          • Aid is a holding operation preventing things from falling apart
          • The countries of the bottom billion of the world's population would have become even poorer than they are today without aid
        • Peter Riddell
          • Aid is often ineffective because of poor governance and corruption in recipient countries
        • The case against aid
          • The neo-liberal view
            • Erixon
              • Although billions of dollars have been given in aid, most African countries are poorer today than they were at the time of their political independence
            • Bauer
              • Aid creates a dependency culture and discourages the entrepreneurial spirit vital to economic growth
            • Moyo
              • The idea that aid can alleviate and even eradicate poverty is a myth
          • The Marxist view
            • Theresa Hayter
              • Aid deliberately functions to bring about and sustain underdevelopment
            • Hancock
              • Aid is spent on bloated salaries, administrative expenses, first-class hotels and attendance at international conferences
          • The post-development view
            • Rist
              • foreign aid is merely a tool for US neo-liberalism that has attempted to dominate economic and political-thinking since WWII
      • The ambiguous role of debt
        • The effectiveness of aid is undermined by the debt owed by the developing world to the West
      • The future of aid
        • Moyo
          • End all aid for 5 years to force developing nations to turn to tax and investments
        • Collier
          • Aid should be used as a reinforcement
      • Conclusions
        • Marren
          • No country has developed through aid alone
    • Trade
      • Modernisation theory
        • Rostow
          • As countries start to industrialise they will take their place within the international trade system
      • Neo-liberalism
        • Reid-Henry
          • Neo-liberalists see global markets as both the means and the desi
      • Dependency theory
        • Frank
          • modernisation theory neglects the fact that developing societies already occupy a place in the world trading system
        • Hoogvelt
          • the combination of free trade and TNCs often leads to the corruption of ppolitical elites in developing countries
      • Alternatives to the neo-liberal dominance of world trade
        • Duncan
          • The developed world has benefitted from the import of cheap Chinese goods
        • So and Chiu
          • The tiger economies did not follow the neo-liberal policies of free trade
    • Industrialisation
      • Modernisation theory and neo-liberal theory
        • Developing countries need to move through the same stages of industrial development as Britain
        • Rostow
          • Developing countries needed the help of the West to get them on their industrial feet
      • Dependency theory
        • Hoogvelt
          • Industrialisation is a positive process, but too often it has been established, organised and developed for the benefit of Western TNCs
      • Industrialisation and export processing zones
        • Klein
          • Many developing countries industrialise by setting up Export Processing Zones
            • Means exploitation of workers and denied worker rights
      • The new international division of labour
        • Froebel et al
          • Labour across countries and continents has been fragmented in to a range of unskilled tasks that can be done with minimal training
      • Bello
        • The most reliable measure of  development Is the rate at which industrialisation occurs
    • The Tourist Industry
      • Tourism to developing countries is on the rise due to :
        • The growth of communication systems
        • Cheapness of air travel
        • Growth of higher education has broadened people's horizons
      • Benefits for developing countries
        • Brings much needed Western currency
        • Provides employment opportunities
        • Stimulates the local economy
      • Urry, Hall and  Harrison
        • Negative impacts
          • Indigenous people may experience relative deprivation
          • Attracts criminals and beggars
    • Urbanisation
      • Modernisation theory
        • Cross
          • Cities are catalysts of modernisation in that they loosen ties to traditional institutions and value systems by reducing the dependency on community and extended kin
      • Dependency theory
        • In developing societies  people have migrated to cities, leaving behind land on which they lived and farmed, but factory jobs are not widely available due to TNCs being highly mechanised
      • An urban underclass
        • Cities play a major role in ensuring that poorer countries remain in a state of underdevelopment because these cities monopolise any surplus capital that might be generated by exports or aid
    • The relationship between development and the environment
      • Environmental pressure points
        • Ehrlich
          • Earth's resources cannot sustain present levels of population growth because some areas of the world have a limited capacity
        • Ellwood
          • The desperately poor do not make good eco-citizens
        • Chakravarty et al
          • Deforestation is partly caused by the poverty and debt that characterises the economies of the developing world
        • Rees
          • The rich wold is consuming the resources of the poor world
      • Sustainable and appropriate development strategies
        • Sustainable development
          • Foster
            • The World Bank's projects and practices are creating environmental problems despite its supposed commitment to sustainable developement
        • Appropriate development
          • Elkington
            • There is tension between economic development and environmental concerns
      • Ellwood
        • The global extinction crisis is accelerating
          • Mankind has forced 816 species into extinction in 500 years
    • Wars and conflict in the developing world
      • 'Old' wars and 'new' wars
        • The characteristics of 'new wars'
          • Identity politics
          • Different modes of warfare
          • Globalised financing
          • Shadow economies
          • Effects of globalised culture
        • Old wars have 5 characteristics:
          • Total wars
          • Public confrontations
          • Socially organised violence
          • Technology focused on mass-production
          • Alliances were made
      • War and underdevelopment
        • Collier
          • Life in developing societies is cheap, and joining a rebel movement gives young men a chance of riches
      • The effects of armed conflict on children
        • In 1999, at least 300,000 children under the age of 18 were actively involved in armed conflict
  • So and Chiu
    • The tiger economies did not follow the neo-liberal policies of free trade

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