• Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 02-06-20 10:17
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  • Agriculture
    • Capital investment in agriculture
      • In the early 1600s, population rise and the thus there was a surplus of labour.
        • This meant that landowners could increase productivity through the use of additional labour.
          • Extra demand for food also made farming more profitable for the landowners.
        • However, population stagnation after 1656 reduced the size of the labour market and led to a general rise in wages.
          • Thus, landowners looked at better explotation of existing land through captial investment to increase productivity.
            • Eg, woodlands were cleared and converted to pasture.
            • The largest land clearance took place in the fenlands of East Anglica, where 4,000 Dutch drainage expters were employed to bring the land under culitvation.
    • Changes in agricultural techniques
      • Population stagnation in the mid-17th century drove some farmers to become more efficient.
        • eg, by exploring new techniques, along with new crops that offered better profits.
      • Improved agricultural techniques included:
        • -Floating water meadows to enhance grazing.
        • -Improved drainage.
        • -Better crop rotation
        • -Use of root crops, eg potatos, carrot, turnip.
        • -Improved farm equipment
        • -Selective breeding of livestock.
        • -Increase in the amount of land farmed.
        • -More extensive use of manure and fertilisers.
        • -Introduction of new ideas and techniques from the Netherlands.
      • As a result of changes in agriculture, England stopped being a net importer of grain and became an exporter.
    • Specialised farming
      • The growth of urban employment required the developement of specialised farming to increase the production with less farm labour.
      • The developement of specialised farming didn't happen on a systematic basis: there was no agricultural revolution in the 1660s.
        • But, the farming ecomony became more efficient.
      • The growth of London increased demand.
        • It also spurred a more specialised regional farming and commercialisation that helped develope a national market.
      • Regional specialisation was part of an emerging national marker and was linked to the georgraphy and climate of England.
        • Generally, the north and west (highland) focused on pastoral farming.
          • Whereas, the south and east (lowland) focused on arable farming.
          • Within this, however, there was further specialisation based on local climate or soil.
            • Eg, north-west Norfolk was arable while the south-east was wood pasture.


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