5. Aggression and its impact upon performance and behaviour

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  • Agression and its impact upon performance and behaviour
    • BULL: 'aggression is any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means'
    • There are 2 types of aggression: hostile aggression and channelled aggression (assertion)
    • Aggression
      • The prime motive of aggression is to inflict injury
      • Breaks the rules
      • Often disrupts team performance and group cohesion
      • PARENS: aggression is 'hostile destructiveness'
    • Assertion
      • Does not attempt to harm anyone
      • Is strictly within the rules of sport
      • Often involves forceful but functional play
      • Focussed on completing the task successfully
      • PARENS: non-hostile self-protective mastery bhevaiour
    • Antecedents of aggression
      • Excessive pressure to win
      • Retaliation to an incident
      • Copying the behaviour of others
      • Nature of the game
      • Reaction to hostile situation
      • Being on a losing side
      • Previous ill-feeling
      • Actual or perceived unfairness
      • Frustration at poor performance
      • Displaced aggression or an influence outside sport
    • Theories of aggression
      • Instinct theory
        • FREUD
        • LORENZ
        • Trait view of aggression
        • Behaviour is at all times predictable
        • Aggression is genetically determined
        • A trait of violence lies within everyone: FREUD called this the 'death instinct' which purpose is to seek aggressive destruction
        • Aggressive energy is constantly building up and needs to be released
      • Social learning theory
        • BANDURA
        • Aggression is learned
        • Aggression is not genetically determined but is instead nurtured by the environment
        • Aggression can be learned by copying role models
        • Aggression is likely to occur if it is part of the social and cultural norm of the group
      • Frustration Aggression hypothesis
        • DOLLARD
        • Frustration develops with goal-directed behaviour is blocked
        • Interactionist theory
        • Frustration could occur through environmental circumstances like defeat
        • Frustration generated by the environment triggers the aggressive gene
        • If the aggressive act is successful, the individual feels catharsis or a cathartic release
        • If the act fails, further frustration is generated
      • Aggression cue hypothesis
        • Interactionist theory
        • BERKOWITZ
        • Frustration leads to an increase in arousal
        • Frustration creates a 'readiness' for aggression which must then be triggered by an environmental cue
        • Better players have the capacity to control frustration and aggression
        • Aggressive behaviour inhibits concentration and team cohesion
      • Elimination of aggression
        • Cognitive techniques which involve psychological strategies
          • Imagery
          • Mental rehearsal
          • Counting to 10
          • Positive self-talk
          • Distancing oneself from the situation
          • Walking away
          • Reasoning with onself
        • Somatic techniques which involve physiological strategies
          • Progressive relaxation techniques
          • Breathing exercises
          • The use of biofeedback
          • Role of responsibility
          • Emphasis on non-aggressive role models
          • Reinforce non-aggressive behaviour to strengthen a desirable S-R bond
        • Attribution
        • SILVA
          • Hostile aggression may increase arousal causing reduced concentration resulting in poor performance

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