Aggression Mind Map

Full mind map of Aggression sylabus and evaluation.

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  • Aggression
    • Social Psychological
      • Social Learning Theory
        • 4 Conditions
          • Attention - influencing factors may be status/similarity
          • Rentention
          • Reproduction
          • Motivation
        • Operant Conditioning
        • Classical Conditioning
        • Also allows for observational learning
        • Learnt behaviour by imitation
        • Aggression is imitated when:  -Admiration    -Highly dependent on others              -low self esteem
        • Evaluation
          • Media influences
          • Role Models
          • Face Validity
          • Cultural Bias
          • Lacks ecologicall validity
          • Frustration and environmental cues are also factors
          • Biological element is not factored in
        • Albert Bandura (1973)
          • Bandura et al - Bobo Doll (1963)
            • Procedure
              • Divide the nursery into 3 sections
                • Showed a fillm of adults and the doll
                  • 1)Adult model rewarded for punching the doll
                  • 2)Adult being reprimanded by another adult for punching the doll
                  • 3)no reactions
            • Findings
              • Condition 1 behaved most aggressively
              • Condition 2 behaved least aggressively
            • Evaluation
              • Cultural bias
              • Demand Characteristics
                • Unrealistic, no where else would chidren be shown aggression and told to copy it
              • Well designed method of coding behaviour
              • Ethical Issues
                • Confidentiality didn't provide fully informed consent
              • Lab experiment
                • Continuity
              • Failed to distinguish between aggression and play fighting
              • Children would be less likely to be aggressive toard another child
      • Deindividuation
        • "A process whereby people lose their sense of socialized individual identity and engage in unsocialized often antisocial behavior"
        • Being part of a crowd
          • Football hooliganism
        • Being dressed in a way that disguises indentity
          • Rehin et al  - 1987
            • Handball teams
            • Orange shirts for some teams
              • played together better and more aggressively
            • Field experiment
            • Ecological validity
          • Zimbardo et al - 1970
            • Identical overalls and hoods
            • Delivered stronger eletric shocks
        • Evaluation
          • lots of support
          • Deindividuation can created helpful behaviors aswell
          • Conforming to group social norms
          • Ritualised aggression like at a football game is planned not spontaneous
    • Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression
      • Testosterone in animals
        • Von Saal - 1983
          • Looked at rats in the womb
            • Specifically rats by the ovaries
          • sister next to brother
            • The sister that had grown next to the brother were more aggressive
        • Beeman - 1947
          • Castrated male mice
            • Injected them with testosterone
              • Re-established aggression
      • Testosterone in humans
        • Dabbs et al - 1995
          • Relationship between testosterone and crime and prison behaviour
          • 692 male prisoners
          • Measured testosterone in saliva
          • Found that those who had comitted crime in volving sex and violence had higher testosterone levels
        • Dabbs et a - 1996
          • Relationship between testosterone levels and fraterniies at 2 univeristys
            • less smiling and generosity in the higher testosterone frats
            • Described as boystrous and macho
            • Lower levels frats were more helpful
          • People would affiliate with similar people
        • Estrogen in women
          • Floody et al - 1968
            • Found a correlation between a womens increased androgen's the week before menstruation and the likelihood of hostility/committing a crime
      • Evaulation
        • Animal reseach
          • Can't always generalise to humans
          • Never justifiable to use animals as subjects of experimentation
        • Societies
          • Some societies live free from aggression
            • Armish
          • No difference in male and female aggression
        • Biologically Deterministic
          • suggests we have no free will
        • Reductionist
          • Does not allow for enviornmental factors
        • Cultural Bias
          • Research is done in western culture
          • cannot generalise
    • Neural Mechanisms
      • Brain Structure
        • Hypothalamus
          • associated with aggressive response
          • Delgado et a - 1954
            • Stimulated monkeys hypothalamus with electric currents. They attacked other monkeys, but only those lower in the hierarchy. SLT trumps brain function
        • Amygdala
          • In animals
            • Kluver & Bucy
              • Removed part of temporal lobes of Rhesus monkey, destroying the amygdala.
                • Behavioral changes resulted to less of fear and of a marked taming affect - less aggressive.
          • In Humans
            • Amygdalectomy
              • reduces violent behavior although come at high rice as emotion is lost
              • Narabayashi et al
                • 43/51 patients who received on amygdalectomy showed more normal social behavior afterwards including reduced aggressioin
              • Debate
                • Certain areas of the amygdala are wired to produce aggression, prefrontal cortex offer some control of these aggressive responese
            • Prefrontal Cortex
              • Prefrontal brain regions are directly connected with limbic system structures - regulate the amygdala driven emotional respones.
                • Andersson et al - 1999
                  • Individuals with damage to the frontal cortex during infancy are at an increased risk of aggressive behavior as adults.
                  • Conducted cases on 2 individuals, received damage to their frontal lbes before 16 months old.
                  • Their behavior closely resembled that of 25 patients with adult onset damage, they will still distinct in a number of ways e.g adult onset didn't have the degree of anti-social behavior as ealry onet patients
                    • Early onset patients performed very poorly in tests of social moral reasoning
              • Raine et al
                • investigated brain activity of 41 murderes using PET scans. The gucose uptake was educed in the prefrontal cortex.
              • Volkow et al
                • looked at cerebral blood flow of 8 violent psychiatric patients they had returned CBF in the prefrontal cortex
      • Phineas Gage
        • Studied by Harlow
        • After he had beben in an accident where a metal rod went through hhs left cheek and come out of his head
        • Survived for 11 years
        • There were noticebale changes in his perosnality, he was unable to stay in ajob for a very longg period of time and became aggressive
    • Genetic Factors
    • Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression
      • Aggression premiered due to the advantage in surviving and reproducing it offered.
      • Aggression exists because it has survival value
        • despite contradictory risk of harm
      • Aggression meant a higher chance of defending their resources getting a mte and reporoducing
      • Aggression provides higher status
      • Daly & Wilson - 1972
        • Majority of murders committed in Detriot were based on status desire
      • Sexual Jealousy
        • Aggression deters sexual jealousy
        • Cuckoldry
          • When a woman has been sexually unfaithful, the man might invest resources in offspring that aren't his own
          • Miller - 1980
            • 55% of 44 battered women said that jealousy was the cause of their husbands aggressive behaviour
          • Takahashi
            • asked men/women to visualise their oartner having sex/being in love with someone else
              • men showed more amygdala activity when thinking of sex
        • Mate Retention
          • direct guarding
          • negative inducements
        • & Extreme Violence
          • Male jealousy is biggest motivtor for killing in the US
          • 92% of same sex killings were male-male
          • Daly & Wilson - 1980
            • 58/214 had sexual jealousy as the underlying factor
      • Infidelity
        • Research has shown that suspicion of infidelity is key in predictor of partner violence
        • Sexual coercsion
          • men who commit partner rape are more likely to have experienced cuckoldry
        • Partner violence is double if partner was pregnant.
      • Evalutaion
        • Nature vs Nurture
          • SLT
            • Men could have seen violent behavior growing up
          • Not all men behave violently
        • Gender Bias
          • Women can also be violent
          • Men cheat as well as women
          • focuses on men
        • Self report techniques
          • Women also hav emate retention techniques
          • invalid
          • questionnaires &urverys
          • Social desireablity bias
        • Social expctation
          • we hide some of our instinctive behaviour
          • not easy to observe jealousy or prejudice
        • Oversimplification
          • Brain structure
          • SLT
          • Cultural influences
          • reductionist
          • complex emotion
    • Evolutionary Explanations of Group Aggression
    • Evolutionary Explantions of Human Aggression
      • This is adaptive aggression
      • Aggression exists because it haa survival value
        • Despite the contradictory rick of harm
      • "High incidence of aggressive behavior across cultures and through time has led evolutionary psychologists to conclude that the adaptive and functional benefits of aggressive behaviors must outweigh possible costs."
        • Buss and Dontley, 2006
      • Aggression provides higher status
        • High status males have access to resources necessary for survival and females necessary for breeding and producing offspring
          • Females desire fit males
            • Low status males may introduce in high risk strategies to compete for status and to enhance their chance of reproducing
              • Daly and Wilson found that the majority of murders committed in Detroit were based on status desire.
      • Sexual Jealousy and Aggression
        • Aggression deters adutery
          • Vigilence to violence
        • Men are always at risk of cuckoldry
          • displays of aggression will dissuade a mans partner  from having sex with another man, thereby minimising the risk of cuckoldry
        • Mate retention and violence
          • Buss 1988
          • direct guarding
          • negative inducements
          • Evaluation
            • Wilson et al 1995
              • Questionnaires
                • Jealous partners are more likely to be violent
              • 72% of women needed medical attention
            • Shackleford et al 2005
              • 461 men and 560 women in relationships
              • There was a positive correltion found between men who used mate retention techniques of direct guarding and negative and their violence
            • Jealousy was the major cause of violence
            • Miller 1980
              • 55% of 44 women cited jealousy as the reason for their husbands aggression
            • Canary 1998
              • Not all males can respond well to situations with jealousy
            • Takahashi 2006
              • isualizing partner being in love/sex
                • Men showed reaction when thinking about sexual infidelity
        • Sexual jealousy and extreme violence
          • Untitled
          • 92% of same sex killings were amle involving love traingles.
          • Daly and Wilson 1985
            • 58/214 cases of murder sexual jealousy was the underlying factor.
      • Infedility
        • Research suggests that the detection or suspicion of infidelity is a key predictor of partviolence
          • Men are more likely to have experienced Cuckoldry
            • Partner rape
          • Women who have cheated are more likely to be raped
        • Evaluation
          • Most studies focus solely on mate retention, doesn't account for women
          • Oversimplification
            • SLT
            • Reductionist
            • Brain structure isn't accounted for
            • Complex emotion
            • Cultural influences
          • Men cheat as well as women
          • social expectation
            • we hide our instinctive behaviour
            • Not easy to observe jealousy or prejudice
          • Self report techniques
            • Questionnaires and surverys
            • Social desirability bias
          • Nature vs Nurture
            • not all men behave violently
            • SLT
              • Men could have seen violent behaviour growing up

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