Aggression (Groups and institutions)

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  • Aggression (2)
    • Group displays
      • Groups make us behave differently (e.g. more anti-social and/or cooperative).
      • Adaptive-protection in a group and sexual selection.
      • Sporting aggression
        • Sport is a type of 'ritualised aggression'
          • Has replaced tribal warfare.
          • Has the benefits of success without the dangers.
        • Victory brings status to players and fans
        • Men are seen as desirable to women.
        • Ultimate Vs Proximate causes?- proximate doesnt make sense.
        • Xenophobia
          • Fear of outsiders
            • Adaptive-avoidance of attack and possible death.
              • Shaw and Wong (1989)-traits which allowed suspicion of outsiders favoured by natural selection.
                • Macdonald (1992)- exagerating negative stereotypesa of outsiders is adaptive.
          • Evans and Rave (2002)
            • Analysed data from 40 football matches. (all from Europe).
            • Used post-match reports and interviews with the police.
            • Findings: More aggression is associated with National footbal games than club games.
            • This finding was attributed to the influence of nationalism and xenophobia.
            • Evaluation
              • Self-report
              • Does not fit in with western ideal of 'fair play'.
        • Evaluation
          • Real world Application-1992, german teams wore "My friend is a foreigner" on their shirts
          • Is hooliganism a career?
            • Marsh (1978)says it allowsfor a sense of worth and identity which they dont get from their everyday lives.
      • Warfare
        • Adaptive nature of war.
          • Groups compete for a higher status-gives them access to bigger land, greater resources and more women.
          • Men who win wars are more likely to pass on their jeans.
          • Chagnon (1968) Yanamama tribe.
            • Constantly formed alliances with other villages to to increase the size of their village
            • These 'branches' often fight for access to women.
            • Successful warriors have more wives and children.
            • Most young men who had killed were married.
            • Most young men who had NOT killed were not married.
        • Evaluation
          • can war really be explained as an 'adaptive response'?
          • Gender bias-the female warrior is virtually unknown.
          • Deterministic
          • Reductionist
          • Gender bias-reinforces gender stereotypes, it wouldn't work if you swapped the roles around.
          • Cultural bias-research done on tribes.
    • Institutional aggression
      • Aggression in prisons
        • About the person (dispositional)
          • Anger, rebellion, expectation, competition.
          • Dispositional factors
            • Irwin and Cressey (1962)-Importation model.
              • Categorised prsioners into three subcultures: criminal, convict and 'straight'.
        • About the place (situational)
          • Violent environment, overcrowded, urban, deprived of freedom, lack of consequence.
          • Situational forces-deprivation theory.
            • This suggests that aggression occurs as a result of internal factors within the prison setting.
            • Sykes (1958)-Deprivation theory.
              • 1. Deprivation of liberty
                • Isnt trusted to live in the free world, rejected by society.
                • 2. Deprivation of autonomy
                  • Prisoners have fewer choices, thold what to do, leads to helplessness.
                  • 3. Deprivation of goods and services.
                    • Inmates dont have the 'stuff' that we expect in the free world.
                    • 4. Heterosexual relationships
                      • Many straight men find female companionship to be part of their self-identity, being denied this, may reduce their sense of self-worth, oppurtunites for homosexual relationships may lead to anxieties.
                      • 5. Security
                        • Fears for their safety, sense of threat leads to aggression.
        • The popcorn model
          • The first individual to become aggressive is like the piece of corn to pop when the pan is heated.
          • In other words, sort out the prison environment and inmates will not become aggressive.
        • Zimbardo (1973)-Standford Prison Experiment
          • He wanted to see whether reported brutality from American prison guards was due to the guards personality (Bad Apples) or due to the environment (Bad Baskets).
      • Evaluation (of aggression models)
        • Dispositional causes.
        • Black inmates were more aggressive but less alcohol/drug reliant-this mirrors US society (Harrer and Steffensmeir, 2006)
        • No evidence of a link between gang membership and mis-conduct in prison (Delisi, 2004)

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