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  • ageing population
    • in the uk in 2005 16% of the uk was over 65. by 2041 this could be 24%
    • increased life expectancy and dropping birth rate
      • advances in medicine and improved living standards
      • life expectancy is currently 81.5 for women and 77,2 for men
      • baby boom in 1940's after war and stopped in 1960 after the pill was created
        • people born in 1940's are now at the retiring age causing a retirement boom
      • birth rate has dropped
        • fewer young people
    • promblems
      • working population isn't large enough to provide a decent pension so the elderly who cant rely on family are in poverty
      • the government are struggling to pay the state pension
      • health care under pressure  because elderly rely heavily  on medical care-
    • strategies to cope
      • raise the retirement age
        • in uk atm is 65 for men and 60 for women by 2046 it is going to be 68 for everyone
        • more people paying tax
        • less people claiming pension
      • encourage migration of young people-
        • around 80% of immigrants were 34 or under
          • more taxes to pay for state pension and services
      • encourage people to have children
        • working family tax credits support families going back to work after having children
      • tax breaks on some state pensions
        • do not rely so much on sate pensions
    • old age dependency ratio was 15% in 1950 now it is 25%
    • italy
      • economy isn't doing well
        • county have been in recession for 10 years
      • children leave home late, sometimes not till 40
      • women have no job security
      • Italian men to contribute to looking after children
      • nursey places are limited with a 2 year waiting list
      • natural increase of 1.2


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